Was the Flood Local or Global?

Some believe the Bible teaches a global flood while others hold that such a flood was a localized affair. A variety of scientists have tried to interpret geology, archeology, and anthropology as evidence of a global flood. The majority of scientists reject the Biblical idea of a flood altogether while agreeing there have been majority cataclysms with global affects. For example, most agree in massive glacial ice ages which scoured across the earth. Others have more recently come to believe a large comet, or comets, struck the earth during the period of the dinosaurs and completely wiped them out.

World-wide there are huge stores of oil and coal. These are virtually global and represent enormous masses of animal and plant life collected and converted by age and/or pressure into essential carbons.

However, our question as Christians is a Biblical one? Does the Bible itself teach a global or earth-wide flood. Or, does it teach, as some hold, something "local." How scientific minds will interpret the earth-wide data will be a subject of debate for years to come just as they have in the past. Those who simply reject the idea of a Biblical flood will read the evidence as it suits there own personal philosophies.

Before we examine possible evidence of a global flood, let us focus our attention on what the Bible itself says.

In this regard several words will become the focus of debate. Some of these words will be earth, dry land, and seas. Happily these are mentioned and somewhat defined in the very first chapter of Genesis. Let us compare these.

“Earth” as the Globe

Genesis 1:1, 2 -- "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Now the earth proved to be formless and waste and there was darkness upon the surface of the watery deep; and God's active force was moving to and fro over the surface of the waters." Scholars are divided whether the word "heavens" means the entire celestial universe or something of an atmosphere limited to the earth. The word "earth" here is `erets (possibly, "firm") and may mean merely "land" though in some places in may refer to the world or the globe. The Jewish Greek version (LXX) used for `erets the word gen (or, ge). From this word we get geology and geography.

The `erets or gen is described in verse two as "formless and waste." This phrase is variously rendered: JPS: unformed and void; IB: without form and empty; NJB: a formless void; LXX: unsightly and unfinished. Judging from the context which follows does this first verse mean only dry land? It would not seem so for in Genesis 1:6 we get the picture of a watery globe with no "dry land" (Genesis 1:9) appearing anywhere as yet. The second day God makes a separation between waters above and waters below, where the middle portion is called "heaven" or the atmosphere where birds will later fly. (Genesis 1:20) Thus "earth" (`erets/ge) in verse one of Genesis is likely the globe for no dry land yet existed.

“Earth” as Dry Land

On the third day, God commands: "Let the waters under the heavens be brought together into one place and let the dry land appear." (Genesis 1:9) Is fair to conclude here that up to this point on the third creative day no "dry land" has been visible on this watery globe? This word for "dry land" is not `erets but yabbashah. The account continues: "And God began calling the dry land [yabbashah] Earth [`erets; or, ge] , but the bringing together of the waters He called Seas." (Genesis 1:10) Does it seem fair to conclude that these "seas" (Hebrew yam) were in "one place"? There is some evidence that the Northern and Southern American continents once joined the European and African continents and drifted apart over time.

Since this "dry land" (yabbashah) did not exist in Genesis 1:1 and thus the "earth" (`erets/ge) was a watery globe. With Genesis 1:10 for the first time "dry land" is also called "earth." That the entire globe may be called "earth" is strongly inferred by Genesis 1:1. This idea of a circular orb is seen also in other Bible texts. Consider Job 26:7, 10: "(God is) hanging the earth upon nothing ... He has described a circle upon the face of the waters." The Jewish Tanakh versions reads: "(God) suspended earth over emptiness."

“Earth” as a Circular Orb

In the Jewish Greek version (LXX) this later phrase is rendered from the Greek egyrosen which infers a gyrating orb, the root being "rotate." A literal reading could be "rotating light after darkness" indicating a spinning globe. [NOTE: Job 27:7, 10 is variously rendered: ABPS: empty space; BAS: in space; NJB: the void; NEB: suspends earth in the void; NJB: He has traced a ring on the surface of the waters at the boundary between light and dark.

Additionally, Isaiah 40:22, "It is (God) who comprehends the circle of the earth." This is the reading in the Jewish Greek Bible (LXX) where the word gyron is used of the earth, that is, a rotating orb. Thus, right from the first words of the Bible the word "earth" may be used of the globe itself or just the dry land.

Further verses in Genesis chapter one and two show grass growing from the earth. (1:11) Birds fly in the atmosphere (heaven) "over the earth" but it is not disclosed they fly over the seas. (1:20) Animals of all kinds appear on earth. (1:24-26) Finally, the supreme earthly creation, Man, is made from the "dry land." (1:28; 2:7) According to Genesis 2:2-8 Adam, the first man, was created at a time when "God had not sent rain upon the earth (and) ... no shrub of the field was yet on earth and no grasses of the field had yet sprouted." After Adam’s creation he is placed in a garden planted by God toward the east of Eden. Later, Cain is a wanderer in the earth. (Genesis 4:12, 14)

The “Earth” in Noah’s Day

With this background, we turn our interest to that world of Noah’s day. We wonder if the foretold deluge is a localized affair or something far-reaching requiring special measures for survival.

The account in Genesis tells us what takes place on that "dry land" part of the earthly globe. Rebellious angelic "sons of God" leave their proper dwelling and begin to corrupt the earth. (Genesis 6:1-5; compare Jude 6; 2 Peter 2:4) By "earth" is it fair to assume this is that habitable (and therefore corruptible) part of "earth"? Genesis 6:11 states the "earth" became ruined because of violence and immorality. Because of this condition God limits how much longer Yahweh will "act toward man." This phrase is rendered by the Tanakh, "My breath shall not abide in man forever." "Man" has increased in obedience to Genesis 1:28. Obviously this started out from Eden but was confined to that portion of habitable earth which was still likely all surrounded by the Seas.

The exact length of time for divine tolerance is given as 120 years. Genesis 6:3 records "After that Jehovah said: ‘My spirit shall not act toward man indefinitely in that he is also flesh. Accordingly his days shall amount to a hundred and twenty years.’" This is a considerable length of time. We wonder: if God’s tolerance was to end in a local flood this would seem a sufficient time for Noah and his family to just move out of the area. Since a local flood would not really affect all animal life, there would be no need whatsoever to gather such into an "ark." Sufficient numbers of species would survive elsewhere on earth.

The Genesis record continues: "Consequently Jehovah saw that the badness of man was abundant in the earth and every inclination of the thoughts of his heart was only bad all the time. And Jehovah felt regrets that he had made men in the earth, and he felt hurt at his heart. So Jehovah said: "I am going to wipe men whom I have created off the surface of the ground, from man to domestic animal, to moving animal and to flying creature of the heavens, because I do regret that I have made them." But Noah found favor in the eyes of Jehovah." (Genesis 6:5-8) Does God seem to have only a portion of mankind in mind? Yahweh regrets He "made men in the earth." This seems a reference back to Genesis 1:28 and 2:7.

How can we know if the "men" here are limited to just one portion of the "dry land" or include all living men no matter where they reside on the Earth? Fortunately we have inspired interpretations in the words of Jesus and Peter. Consider Luke 17:26: "Moreover, just as it occurred in the days of Noah, so it will be also in the days of the Son of man: they were eating, they were drinking, men were marrying, women were being given in marriage, until that day when Noah entered into the ark, and the flood arrived and destroyed them all." And later, in the same context the Nazarene compares Noah’s day to "the days of the Son of Man." Note Luke 21:34, 35: "Suddenly that day be instantly upon you as a snare. For it will come in upon ALL THOSE dwelling upon the face of ALL THE EARTH." Is it fair to conclude that this statement by the Nazarene has in mind a global affect? In Matthew 24:37-39 these words are added right here in this same prophetic context: "For just as the days of Noah were, so the presence of the Son of man will be. For as they were in those days before the flood, eating and drinking, men marrying and women being given in marriage, until the day that Noah entered into the ark; and they took no note until the flood came and swept them all away, so the presence of the Son of man will be."

If the comparison with Noah’s cataclysm appears to involve "all those dwelling on the face of all the earth," the parallel looses much of its force if the Noachin deluge only affected a portion of the earth while others were unaffected.

Peter also comes to our aid in understanding whether the flood was local or global. "(God) did not hold back from punishing an ancient world, but kept Noah, a preacher of righteousness, safe with seven others when he brought a deluge upon a world of ungodly people." (2 Peter 2:5) Two things catch our attention: a) Peter uses the Greek kosmos or "world"; and, b) he indicates only eight persons were brought safely through the deluge (Greek cataclysmos) The Fisherman has already mentioned this rescue in 1 Peter 3:20 in which only "eight souls" were saved through the waters of the deluge.

However, it is 2 Peter 3:5-7 which clarifies for us whether he understood this deluge to be a local matter. Note how he describes this period: "For, according to their wish, this fact escapes their notice, that there were heavens from of old and an earth standing compactly out of water and in the midst of water by the word of God; and by those [means] the world of that time suffered destruction when it was deluged with water. But by the same word the heavens and the earth that are now are stored up for fire and are being reserved to the day of judgment and of destruction of the ungodly men." Peter describes an "earth standing compactly out of water." Would this "earth" only be a localized "land" or is it that Earth described in Genesis 1:10 where grass sprouted, animals roamed, and man had his primeval Edenic home? Peter does not say a certain "land" suffered destruction but a "world." Peter again uses the Greek cosmos.

The Nazarene himself uses this word by means of his apostolic translator John. John 1:10 reads: "The world came into existence by his agency." And in prayer, he says: "Father, glorify me beside yourself with the same glory I had beside you before the world was." Jesus does not seem to mean a "world" of only a limited "land." Indeed, elsewhere he states this "world" had its beginning or founding with the first child born to Adam. (Matthew 23:35; compare Luke 11:50, 51)

With this inspired background in mind we return now to Genesis 6:11, 12: "And the earth came to be ruined in the sight of the [true] God and the earth became filled with violence. So God saw the earth and, look! it was ruined, because ALL FLESH had ruined its way on the earth." According to Peter, what "earth came to be ruined"? The "world of ungodly men." This "earth" included "all flesh" as the ancient "world." It is "all flesh" God is going to destroy, not just a limited group of people living in a localized portion of the earth. Genesis 6:13 puts it: "The end of ALL FLESH has come before me, because the earth is full of violence as a result of them; and here I am bringing them to ruin together with the earth."

The Ark

God commands Noah, "Make for yourself an ark." (Genesis 6:14) Jesus, Paul, and Peter believed in such an "ark." Paul writes in Hebrews 11:7, "By faith Noah, after being given divine warning of things not yet beheld, showed godly fear and constructed an ark for the saving of his household; and through this [faith] he condemned the world, and he became an heir of the righteousness that is according to faith." We note, like Peter, "the world (COSMOS) was condemned."

How extensive or wide-spread would this cataclysm or deluge be? Genesis 6:17 records, "And as for me, here I am bringing the deluge of waters upon the earth to bring to ruin ALL FLESH IN WHICH THE FORCE OF LIFE IS ACTIVE from under the heavens. Everything that is in the earth will expire." This has the clear tone of a global affair. "All flesh" is clearly defined as "everything in the earth." What "earth" could this be but that "dry land" surrounded by the Seas of Genesis 1:10?

When the above verse says "from under the heavens" which would these be? Is it fair to conclude this is that atmosphere or sky which is that space between the waters above and the waters below? Jesus uses a similar phrase in Mark 13:27 which implies the whole globe. Paul indicates the spread of the gospel as not something localized but, "in all creation that is under heaven." (Colossians 1:23; compare also Luke 17:24; Acts 2:5; 4:12)

The dimensions of the ark vary according to scholars but it has been reckoned by some as 450 in length, 75 feet wide and 50 feet high -- a floatable box with the volume of 500 railroad boxcars. This seems of enormous size -- over-kill on God’s part if you will -- for something needed in a localized flood. That this is a global catastrophe is seen by the next verse: (Genesis 7:4) "I will wipe every existing thing that I have made off the surface of the ground." The Jewish Greek Bible reads: "I will blot out every offspring which I have made from the face of all the earth." The Jewish Tanakh renders this passage: "I will blot out from the earth all existence that I created."

Of course the story of Noah leading all the animals into the ark is well-known. If the flood is local then taking animals into the ark is completely unnecessary. Many object to the idea that this ark could have contained all the animal species necessary to repopulate the earth. Those who do not believe in a global flood will never be convinced by any statistics or studies on this subject. Those who do believe God brought a global flood will have no difficulty in imagining what He could accomplish.

The Deluge

Genesis 7:17-24 describes the extent of the deluge: "And the deluge [Greek cataclysmos = wash down + much] went on for forty days upon the earth [`erets/ge], and the waters kept increasing and began carrying the ark and it was floating high above the earth [`erets/ge]. And the waters became overwhelming and kept increasing greatly upon the earth [`erets/ge], but the ark kept going on the surface of the waters. And the waters overwhelmed the earth [`erets/ge] so greatly that all the tall mountains that were under the whole heavens came to be covered. Up to fifteen cubits the waters overwhelmed them and the mountains became covered."

The record states "all the tall mountains" and qualifies these as "under the whole heavens." In Genesis 1:8 these "heavens" are global, not just covering a localized area. How tall mountains were at this time no one knows. Some estimate the draft of the ark to have been fifteen cubits, designed so it would not go aground on a mountain.

Regarding these "mountains" the Psalm describes the Flood: "You made the deep cover (the earth) as a garment; the waters stood above the mountains. They fled at Your blast, rushed away at the sound of Your thunder --- mountains rising, valleys sinking --- to the place You established for them. You set bounds they must not pass so that they never again cover the earth." (Psalm 104:6-9 JPS)

Many scientists will argue this process took untold millions of years. The Bible, however, would seem to indicate these massive upheavals, including perhaps the shifting of continents, took much less time.

How Many Died?

Peter says "a world" or cosmos as affected. Genesis 7:21-24 continues: "So ALL FLESH that was moving upon the earth expired, among the flying creatures and among the domestic animals and among the wild beasts and among ALL the swarms that were swarming upon the earth, and ALL MANKIND. EVERYTHING in which the breath of the force of life was active in its nostrils, namely, ALL that were on the dry ground, died. Thus he wiped out EVERY EXISTING THING that was on the surface of the ground, from man to beast, to moving animal and to flying creature of the heavens, and they were wiped off the earth; and ONLY Noah and those who were with him in the ark kept on surviving. And the waters continued overwhelming the earth a hundred and fifty days."

People who have experienced small localized floods, include great tidal waves, know the destructive force of water and mud. Objects of enormous size are hurled and carried long distances. What would be the affects of such a global deluge? What could we expect? Certainly we can envision great walls of water scraping and scooping up enormous masses of vegetation and animals of all kinds. Do we find coal and oil, as well as gases, stored in unfathomable caverns all over the earth? Today men drill and dig for oil and coal in global locations. In addition huge carnal houses of preserved animals are found throughout the earth -- all buried in mud, some quick frozen so that in some locals the meat is still eaten. These animals were not slowly pushed away by snail-paced glaciers, but buried and frozen almost instantly so that vegetation is found in their teeth and undigested in their stomachs.

Would we also see evidence of the action of water over the surface of the globe: deep canyons carved out quickly and whole land masses showing the wave action of a great flood?

The account continues: "God caused a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters began to subside. And the springs of the watery deep and the floodgates of the heavens became stopped up, and so the downpour from the heavens was restrained. And the waters began receding from off the earth, progressively receding; and at the end of a hundred and fifty days the waters were lacking. And in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, the ark came to rest on the mountains of Ararat. And the waters kept on progressively lessening until the tenth month. In the tenth month, on the first of the month, the tops of the mountains appeared." (Genesis 8:1-5) What would be the geological affects of such drying? The Psalmist described it above as "mountains rising and valleys sinking." Today there is evidence of great sea creatures high on mountain tops and miles thick limestone layers high on Mount Everest. Additionally there seems evidence of deep ocean canyons once at sea-level or above.

Today no one seems to argue that some single great cataclysm or catastrophe wreck global havoc on Earth. Whether this was a comet impact or great glaciers, the only disagreement is length of time. The notion of the slow moving glaciers is loosing ground against a sudden impact of a comet with global consequences.

God’s Global Promise

"And God went on to bless Noah and his sons and to say to them: "Be fruitful and become many and fill the earth (`erets/ge). ... And it shall occur that when I bring a cloud over the earth, then the rainbow will certainly appear in the cloud. And I shall certainly remember my covenant which is between me and you and EVERY LIVING SOUL AMONG ALL FLESH; and no more will the waters become a deluge to bring ALL FLESH to ruin. And the rainbow must occur in the cloud, and I shall certainly see it to remember the covenant to time indefinite between God and every living soul among ALL FLESH THAT IS UPON THE EARTH." And God repeated to Noah: "This is the sign of the covenant that I do establish between me and all flesh that is upon the earth." ... These were the families of the sons of Noah according to their family descents, by their nations, and from these the nations were spread about in the earth after the deluge." (Genesis 9:1, 14-17; 10:32)

God’s promise to Noah and "all flesh" was not to just a localized people dwelling in just one area of the earth, but those who would people the entire globe. Paul makes this same reference to the Greeks in Athens: "(The God) made out of One every nation of men to dwell upon the face of all the earth." He then quotes a Greek poet, "For we are also His progeny." (Acts 17:26, 28)

The prophets were to mention Noah and the global deluge. Isaiah 54:9 says: "For this to Me is like the waters of Noah: As I swore that the waters of Noah never more would flood the earth." (Ezekiel 14:14, 20)

Local Flood

There are questions those who believe in only an isolated local flood which did not affect other wide regions of the earth. When they argue for a "local" flood, exactly what are the boundaries of this flood? Can they present proof regarding the territory this flood covered?

Can they explain the dimensions of the Ark when a large canoe would have sufficed?

Flood traditions and Other Evidences

If such a global flood occurred we would be correct in stating that far-flung peoples would carry the memory of such an event. This would include those who would not have experienced a "local" flood. We would also expect certain similarities though time and myth may change other features. is this the case with those people around the globe?

Though those who believe in a local flood with the rest of the planet unaffected, the following sources and commentaries will have little affect. However, for hose interested in subject we provide a few references.

"The time came when God spoke to Noah about the coming end of all flesh ( all humankind )...Some have proposed that the flood was only a local flood in the Near East but The Bible's language seems too strong for that. The point is total judgment except for Noah and his family....God reemphasized that the destruction of all living things off the face of the earth, literally, from the face of the dry land. This indicates a universal flood, not just a local flood...The covering of the mountains also indicates a universal flood...It is possible new mountains arose and new ocean depths were formed, allowing the waters to go down. The deeps off Japan and the Philippines remain deep and are not filled with silt, indicating they are geologically recent....Noah undoubtedly let the smaller animals out before he released the larger ones. God wanted all the animals and birds to breed abundantly. This again implies a universal flood. If the flood were only local, they could have gone over the hills and brought in more animals and birds from the next valley... " (The Complete BIBLICAL LIBRARY)

The Saturday Evening Post noted: "Many of these animals were perfectly fresh, whole and undamaged, and still either standing or at least kneeling upright. . . . Here is a really shocking-to our previous way of thinking-picture. Vast herds of enormous, well-fed beasts not specifically designed for extreme cold, placidly feeding in sunny pastures . . . Suddenly they were all killed without any visible sign of violence and before they could so much as swallow a last mouthful of food, and then were quick-frozen so rapidly that every cell of their bodies is perfectly preserved."

Scientific Monthly observed: "In those days the earth had a tropical or sub-tropical climate over much of its land surface, and in the widespread tropical lands there was an abundance of lush vegetation. The land was low and there were no high mountains forming physical or climatic barriers."

Of the now-frigid Antarctic continent the French magazine Science et Vie, said:

"This inhuman land, this desert of ice, was once a green land where streams flowed among flowers, where birds sang in the trees."

Byron C. Nelson in his book The Deluge Story in Stone: "The way fishes by the millions are entombed in the rocks of England, Scotland, Wales, Germany, Switzerland, the American Rockies; the way elephants and rhinoceroses are buried by the millions in Alaska, Siberia, England, Italy, Greece; the way hippopotami are buried by the thousands in Sicily; the way reptiles are buried by the millions in western Canada, the United States, South America, Africa, Australia, to mention only a portion of such instances, absolutely require the explanation of great catastrophes for their elucidation."

William J. Miller, Emeritus Professor of Geology at the University of California at Los Angeles, notes in An Introduction to Historical Geology: "Comparatively few remains of organisms now inhabiting the earth are being deposited under conditions favorable for their preservation as fossils. . . . It is, nevertheless, remarkable that so vast a number of fossils are embedded in the rocks."

"Riddle of the Frozen Giants," The Saturday Evening Post observes: "The list of animals that have been thawed out of this mess would cover several pages. . . . They are all in the muck. These facts indicated water as the agency which engulfed the creatures. . . . many of these animals were perfectly fresh, whole and undamaged, and still either standing or at least kneeling upright. . . .

"Here is a really shocking-to our previous way of thinking-picture. Vast herds of enormous, well-fed beasts not specifically designed for extreme cold, placidly feeding in sunny pastures, delicately plucking flowering buttercups at a temperature in which we would probably not even have needed a coat. Suddenly they were all killed without any visible sign of violence and before they could so much as swallow a last mouthful of food, and then were quick-frozen so rapidly that every cell of their bodies is perfectly preserved, despite their great bulk and their high temperature. What, we may well ask, could possibly do this?"

B. Silliman, formerly head of the geology department at Yale University, said: "Respecting the Deluge there can be but one opinion: geology fully confirms the Scriptural history of the event."

"Even on the tops of high mountains, whole trees sunk deep under ground, as also teeth and bones of animals, fishes entire, seashells, ears of corn, etc., petrified"; which could never have come there but by a world-wide deluge." (Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge)

Myths of Creation, Philip Freund estimates that over 500 Flood legends are told by more than 250 tribes and peoples.

The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia says: "The universality of the flood accounts is usually taken as evidence for the universal destruction of humanity by a flood . . . Moreover, some of the ancient accounts were written by people very much in opposition to the Hebrew-Christian tradition." (Volume 2, page 319)

"The flood was the most important landmark in the history of the ancient world, and common flood legends suggest that the same event has been described in Indian, Hebrew, and Babylonian accounts," says The Vedic Age.

The book Sociografia del Inkario states: "All the traditions of the people of the Andean altiplano speak of a flood that had submerged the whole earth."

King Ashurbanipal of Assyria, who established a library of 22,000 clay tablets and texts, claimed: "I had my joy in the reading of inscriptions on stone from the time before the flood." (Light From the Ancient Past, by J. Finegan, 1959, pp. 216, 217)

"They were finding ice ages at every stage of the geologic history, in keeping with the philosophy of uniformity. Careful reexamination of the evidence in recent years, however, has rejected many of these ice ages; formations once identified as glacial moraines have been reinterpreted as beds laid down by mudflows, submarine landslides and turbidity currents: avalanches of turbid water that carry silt, sand and gravel out over the deep-ocean floor."

Biblical Archaeologist observed: "It is important to remember that the story of a great flood is one of the most widespread traditions in human culture . . . Nevertheless behind the oldest traditions found in Near Eastern sources, there may well be an actual flood of gigantic proportions dating from one of the pluvial periods . . . many thousands of years ago."

Geology professor John McCampbell once wrote: "The essential differences between Biblical catastrophism [the Flood] and evolutionary uniformitarianism are not over the factual data of geology but over the interpretations of those data. The interpretation preferred will depend largely upon the background and presuppositions of the individual student."

"Far from the Genesis Flood being an unlikely event in recent geological times it fits quite naturally into such a period . . . In fact it was the most likely period for such a rapid and violent upheaval."-The Flood Reconsidered.

"Archaeology has also unearthed other versions of the [Genesis] story of the Deluge . . . The similarities are more striking than the differences."-Digging Up the Bible Lands.

"A world cataclysm during which the earth was inundated or submerged by water [is] a concept found in almost every mythology in the world. . . . In Inca mythology it was provoked by the supreme god, Viracocha, who was dissatisfied with the first men and decided to destroy them."-Funk and Wagnalls Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Mythology and Legend.

"Even greater similarities to the Genesis account are present in another Babylonian epic whose hero bears the name Gilgamesh. . . . It most likely came into existence around the beginning of the second millennium. . . . [Clay tablet XI] is virtually intact, thus providing the most complete version of the deluge story in cuneiform script."-Encyclopædia Judaica.

"Like the Hebrews, Babylonians, Greeks, Norsemen, and other peoples of the Old World, many Indian tribes of North and South America had traditions of the Deluge. . . . 'When the earliest missionaries came' . . . , the Reverend Myron Eells reported in 1878, 'they found that those Indians had their traditions of a flood, and that one man and his wife were saved on a raft.'"-Indian Legends of the Pacific Northwest.

One Bible scholar wrote: "The harmony between all these accounts is an undeniable guarantee that the tradition is no idle invention; a fiction is individual, not universal; that tradition has, therefore, a historical foundation; it is the result of an event which really happened in the ages of the childhood of mankind."

Prince Mikasa, a well-known archaeologist, stated: "Was there really a Flood? . . . The fact that the flood actually took place has been convincingly proved."


We Friends of the Nazarene wish to express our conviction in a global Flood based, not on the opinions of Bible critics, but on what the Bible itself states.

Friends of the Nazarene Publishing

Nazarene Commentary 2000© by Mark Heber Miller

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