Volume 3 – May 2000
OF PURPOSE: Nazarene Saints
Publishing© is a Bible research group for a better Scriptural understanding. We
are dedicated to the preservation and publishing of Christian writings which aid
Friends of the Nazarene© to
"follow the Lamb no matter where he goes." (John 15:14; 3 John 14;
Revelation 14:4) The Friends of the
Nazarene© are a spiritual community of Messianic Christians. We are
apologists dedicated to the defense of the truth that "God is One" and
not three. The Bible is our creed. We view this "God-breathed" Book as
inspired alone, while the thoughts of men about it are not. We wish to show
respect for our multitude of Christian brethren. (1 Peter 3:15)
[Mark Miller / Senior
Editor (California, USA); Ralph Slaney / Senior Spanish editor (Almeria, Spain);
Luis Padilla / Associate Spanish Editor (Brooklyn, USA); Andy Weeks / Associate
Editor [Webmaster] (Chicago, USA); Andrew Foss / Hebrew editor (California, USA)]
· FAITH PERSPECTIVES
· “DO BUSINESS UNTIL I COME”
· AFFIRMATION OF CONVICTIONS
· BIBLE THOUGHT FOR THE DAY
THE FORMULATION OF THE TRINITY
THE GOSPEL OF JOHN: Work
continues on the 21st
Century Version of the Christian Scriptures
of John’s Gospel. It is finished through chapter 9.
BIBLE THOUGHT FOR THE DAY: We
are going to post a “thought for the day” on a Bible verse on the
Nazarene-Friends eGroup. These may be both a source of teaching and
ANNUAL ELDERS MEETING: The
Friends of the Nazarene elders plan to meeting annually around Memorial time.
Though not all can always be there, their thoughts are solicited to be added to
the agenda. We have also come to some agreement that we annually review Affirmation
of Convictions – those teachings characterize Friends
of the Nazarene – and determine if any adjustments need to be made. Our
beloved elder in Spain, Ralph Slaney, has re-worked Affirmation of Convictions in a more expanded version and we elders
are in agreement on the content. It has been added to this issue of the Friends
magazine and will soon replace the one on the web site.
It is always refreshing to read about God and His Son. I've
been reading some of
your work for awhile and have enjoyed it very much, God is with you people. Your love for our Creator shows. People should be following Jehovah and His Son Jesus, not [some] oppressive religious system. Thanks in advance. Larry
“Do business til I come.” [Luke 19:13 Rotherham]
Jesus the Nazarene was a very busy, hard-working man when on earth. He said, “My Father has continued to work until the present, and I also continue to work.” [John 5:17 NCMM] Any reader of the Gospels will marvel at the amount of walking he did. What work did he perform? In the little synagogue in Nazareth he read to the Jews assembled from Isaiah 61:1, “Yehowah’s Pneuma is upon me, because He anointed me to declare the good news to the poor.” [Luke 4:18 NCMM] About a day later he told a crowd in an isolated place, “Also, it is necessary that I declare the Good News of God’s Kingdom to different cities, because for this reason I was sent forth.” [Luke 4:43 NCMM]
Jesus was a preacher and teacher who called men and women to God. He made disciples. That was really the business he was about. At the end of his industrious three year ministry he related a parable to four of his hard-working apostles. It is called the Parable of the Talents in Matthew 25:14-30. In Luke 19:11-27 another illustration had been given by Jesus a bit earlier and it is called the Parable of the Ten Minas. Both parables are similar and deal with a nobleman, the master of a great house, who must leave to a distant land in order to receive a kingdom. The Parable of the Talents indicates it would be a long time before the return of the Master. [Matthew 25:14]
Before leaving on this long trip, the master entrusts three slaves with funds and tells them, “Do business until I return.” One slave receives 5, another 2, and yet another 1 portion of these funds. “After a long time” the master returns and settles accounts with the three slaves. The first and second slaves in both parables increase these funds to the pleasure of the master. They are rewarded with authority over cities.
In each case the last slave failed to increase the master’s business. When brought before the lord of the house, he claims he feared the master and so buried the money in order to have it on the master’s return. In both parables this slave is rebuked for failure to increase the master’s business and is so punished. The moral is stated: “The person that has will be given more, and the person who has not, even what he does not have, will be taken away.” [Matthew 25:29; Luke 19:26]
It is obvious to most readers familiar with the Bible that the noble Master is Jesus Christ. Before he ascends to heaven – that distant land – to receive his royal kingship, he entrusts to his disciples degrees of business dependent on individual ability. In the beginning these slaves were the Nazarene’s apostles. However, the instruction, “Do business until I return,” indicates a type of slave throughout the more than two millenniums until the Master’s Return.
The general meaning is that all slaves of the Master’s House – depending on their personal abilities – have been committed a portion of the Master’s “business” with the instructions to “Do business until I return.” So, the parables are easy to comprehend so that no Christian can miss the main point – increase the Master’s “business.” The question that arises is this: What is the Master’s business?
Simply put – Jesus was a disciple-maker. That is, while declaring his message of the Good News of the Kingdom, he drew men and women who later become Nazarene disciples. He describes his business: “I came to search for what was lost and to find the lost sheep of the House of Israel.” When he was about to ascend to heaven as that nobleman, prepared to journey to a distant land to receive his kingdom, he does in fact explicitly give the “minas” or “talents” to his apostles. This is recorded in Matthew 28:19, 20, “Therefore, go your ways and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing persons. … Teach them to observe everything I commanded you.” [NCMM]
Thus the Nazarene’s disciples knew their Lord’s “business” was that of making new disciples and teaching them what Jesus taught. No doubt when Christ gave them this commission, they remembered what he had told them at the beginning of his ministry: “I will make you fishers of men. From now you will be catching living persons.” So, for three years they were able to watch the master teacher at work in his business. They heard one of the greatest sermons ever preached on a mountain-side. They saw thousands gather to listen to him for three days without eating! They learned how to spread the word of a visiting Rabbi. They learned how to ask questions. They learned how to use parables. They learned how to treat women, children, and grieving parents. And, they learned how to deal with those who would oppose their work.
As a result of their imitation of the Nazarene and his own godly business activity, the Book of Acts records the enormous growth of the early Church. Thousands of people from all over the world and from many walks of life accepted the Word and were baptized as disciples of the Lord Jesus. [Acts 2:41; 4:4; 21:20]
That some kind of organized effort was started to teach others how to make disciples -- and thus do the Lord’s business until he returned – is shown by Paul’s instructions to Timothy: “As the instructions I gave you … transmit them to trustworthy men as shall be qualified to teach others as well.” [GDS, BER] This work was the result of certain “gifts in men” Jesus provided the Church after his ascension to heaven. Paul writes accordingly at Ephesians 4:11-13, “These ‘gifts’ given to humans include apostolic representatives, prophetic spokesman, missionaries of the good news, pastoral shepherds of congregations, and teachers within the Church. The purpose of these ‘gifts’ is to rearrange and perfectly equip all the Saints for the work of service to others; and, for the upbuilding and strengthening of the whole Body of Christ. And this until all of us attain a perfect unity of faith and a heightened relationship with the Son of God. Until we all together grow into perfect maturity measured by the full stature of the Christ.” [NCMM Paraphrase]
And so through the Gospel Age other godly men and women came and went, leaving behind disciples as a result of their preaching and teaching. This “business” was like a Dragnet lowered into earth’s ocean of humanity to bring up “fish of every kind.” Not until the harvest-judgment would these “fish” be separated into those fit and those unfit for the Kingdom. [Matthew 13:47-50]
Doing the disciple-making “business” today
Two-thousand years later many Christians across the international globe are still doing the Lord’s “business” with keen expectation for his future Parousia or Arrival. How can a disciple of the Nazarene today “do business until [he] returns”? Largely by making disciples. How can this be done?
Paul gave the key when he wrote, “I believed, therefore, I spoke.” [2 Corinthians 4:12, 13] Largely finding persons of interest or need relies on our speaking to others about our faith. It was the way Jesus did it. It was the way his apostles did it. It is the way Paul did it.
One way to begin doing this “business” is to have a home Bible study with one’s own family. Many of the Friends of the Nazarene do this regularly on Wednesday evening by a consideration of a chapter of the Bible. Disciple-making begins first at home. However, others may be invited to such a Bible Discussions and Devotions mid-week meeting. But, where can interest or need be found?
Many successful disciple-makers have found opportunities – or make opportunities – at work, at school, neighbors, or in other daily activities. Some are naturally gifted with this ability and have ten times more abilities than another with but one such. However, many who were very shy and withdrawn have learned to become more like Christ and Paul. They have been taught, or learned how, to start godly conversations with others. Often a piece of printed material is effective in expressing words one may not be naturally gifted with. Often it is a simple matter of mentioning that your family has a regular home Bible discussion, and then invite them to join you. Many have found some kind of warm hospitality creates a comfortable atmosphere.
Christians throughout the ages have preached on street corners, market-places, or even going from door to door. If a Christian has a regular weekly Bible discussion in a neighborhood, it will only benefit others if those who live within a few blocks know about such a gathering. Some have mailed out to the neighborhood a little announcement of study a meeting.
People will have questions on the Bible and not all Christians are at first capable of answering all of these. Such may find some printed material dealing with these questions of considerable help. Many people who first come to a local Bible study need individual help because all are at different levels of development. It is truly a blessing when one can conduct a Bible discussion with another.
Prayers in behalf of such disciple-making “business,” or trade, will no doubt cause honest-hearted persons in need appear out of no where. How one goes about this is a matter of person choice. What is important is that when the Master returns for the parousia-judgment on his own Household, each of us make speak freely about how we increased the Master’s business. Whether five, three, or one, we will not have buried our talent. Rather we may be surrounded by disciples of Christ whom we assisted on a course of ‘following the lamb no matter where he goes.’ [Revelation 14:4]
little children, continue to abide in [Jesus]
when the time comes for him to be made visible
all might speak openly and freely at his Arrival
not experience embarrassment while standing before him
. . on the Day of Judgment.”
John 2:28;4:17 NCMM Paraphrase]
one reads the Bible, or studies a religion, it is often with a preconceived
idea. Ideas are a part of every
individual and are formulated during early life.
Right from the time of babyhood the actions and beliefs of the parent or
guardian are instilled within the child. These
concepts are at times deliberately impregnated into the young person’s mind,
but often they are formed by him being encapsulated within a particular location
or environment. A child brought up
in a home of deeply religious parents will be naturally inclined to remain
within the confines of that persuasion, though not always. The same can be said for many walks of life, whether
political or educational. It is,
therefore, particularly hard to evaluate accurately and impartially a view point
that is either strange, or at conflict with one’s current perspective.
later in life one happens upon a presentation of material that promises to
provide a need, or appears to satisfy a longing, it is only natural to pursue it
and jealously guard its source. As
the saying goes: “Don’t kill the goose that lays the golden eggs.”
In like manner if one has success and enjoyment from a particular
commercial enterprise it is highly improbable that one would change direction
and use a new and untried product. This
is especially true when it comes to religious belief.
Born a Catholic, it is rare to change.
Born a Protestant it is highly unusual to become a Catholic.
And although it does happen, the majority of persons prefer to remain
with their inherited religion. Is
there any difference if at a later stage in life, perhaps after a laps in
practice, or after a period of dissatisfaction, or because of non-belief, one
becomes a convert to a particular movement?
Generally, no. If one is
persuaded that a particular religion is right and correct they have usually been
shown something to give them that impression.
After which it is most difficult to re-adjust to yet another ideology.
is because of the aforementioned postulation that the association known as Friends
of the Nazarene does not expect their associates to be dogmatically tied to
a set of rules and dictates from a hierarchy.
After careful study of the Holy Scriptures, and long deliberation, a
number of fundamental ‘truths’ do tend to surface. It is these teachings, and these only, that are presented as
a statement of belief. Where the
Bible is not specific, or if there is a reasonable doubt as to the correct
interpretation of a particular Scripture, it is left to the individual to decide
completely, and without prejudice, as to his own conclusions.
All the affirmations are based wholly on the established Bible canon and
are not subject to tradition or philosophy (classic or modern), nor are they
influenced by the religious creed or doctrine of established or contemporary
those unlearned in the Bible it is strongly suggested that they make a careful
and thorough investigation. After
which they may then use their intellectual capacity to distinguish between
actual Biblical truth and that which has been dissimulated, or is promulgated by
a particular religion or group. As
Jesus himself said: “Ask,
and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be
opened unto you: For everyone that asketh receiveth; and he that seeketh findeth;
and to him that knocketh it shall be opened.” (Matthew 7:7-8 King James Version) Therefore, the sincere student would do well to find a quiet
private place to pray, and to ask the Heavenly Father to reveal His truth to
him. Then by allowing the Holy
Spirit to guide his thoughts and direct his actions he will enable himself to
come to an ever truer and more accurate understanding of the Holy Scriptures,
thus bringing himself ever closer to the real knowledge of God.
May you find the way.
THE HOLY BIBLE
THE SON OF GOD — JESUS CHRIST
THE HOLY SPIRIT
THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH
THE DOCTRINE OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH
THE ORDER OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH
THE CHRISTIAN FAMILY
THE CHRISTIAN AS AN INDIVIDUAL
as any organized entity must have a standard against which to measure its
actions, performance or achievements, the Christian has for his gauge the Holy
Bible or Sacred Scriptures.
people known as the Friends of the Nazarene accept the traditional canon of sixty-six
books from Genesis to Revelation as Holy Scripture and the inspired word of God.
“All Scripture is God-breathed and is useful for teaching, rebuking,
correcting and training in righteousness, so that the man of God may be
thoroughly equipped for every good work.” (2 Timothy 3:16-17 New
International Version) Although the Scriptures were written and styled by
various men over a long period of time they were divinely directed. (2 Peter
are other extra-Biblical books not included within this traditional canon which
also contain much moral and informative material that can be of great benefit to
to be overlooked are books of historical and educational content which can
enhance and deepen appreciation for God and His creation.
These can also help to fill out the Biblical account.
So while not being viewed as inspired they can be helpful in rounding out
knowledge for the man of God.
the Christian’s belief should be based on the established Bible canon (Genesis
it is within the confines of the Holy Bible that all the “Affirmation of
Convictions” are based. Where there is a difference between the written Word
of God and the beliefs or credos of the various religions, the Friends
of the Nazarene will opt for
the Bible. (John 17:17)
it be that new information is proffered, or adduced, to challenge the said
“Affirmation of Convictions,” this will be presented at the Annual Meeting
of Elders for a deep, exhaustive and prayerful study in an endeavour to discern
the real truth of Scripture. (Acts 15:1-35)
the parameter set by God’s holy word, the Christian is free to direct his life
and will echo the Psalmist:
for joy to the Lord, all the earth.
the Lord with gladness;
before him with joyful songs.
that he, Yahweh, is God,
made us and we belong to him,
are his people, the flock that he pastures.
into his gates with thanks giving,
into his courts with praise:
thankful unto him, and bless his name.
the Lord is good; his mercy is everlasting;
his truth endureth to all generations.”
100 NIV, TJB, KJV)
Though every man,
religion, or religious organization be found a liar, it is the duty of every
Christian to adhere to “His truth that
endureth to all generations.” Each
one will stand before the Judgement Seat of God to explain his beliefs and
actions, therefore each and every person owes it to himself to examine and stay
bound by God’s written word the Holy Bible.
let God be found true, though every man be found a liar, even as it is written:
‘That you might be proved righteous in your words and might win when you are
being judged.’” (Romans 3:4 New World Translation)
Absolute, Almighty God without equal in age, power, knowledge. (Psalm 90:2,
Isaiah 40:13-14, 26, 1 John 3:20, Revelation 11:17)
of all things created.
(Genesis 1:1, 26, Job 38:4, Psalm 90:2, Isaiah 40:26)
is characterized by a personality with the highest quality.
His personality is dominated by the attributes of love, wisdom, justice
and power from which are developed the complete range of spiritual peculiarities
that have since been intrinsically engendered into all intelligent life forms
including the human. (Genesis 1:26, Deuteronomy 32:4, Proverbs 3:19, 1 John
4:8, Revelation 11:17)
has taken upon Himself, and has become known by, a unique special personal name.
This name is variously translated as Yahweh, Jehovah, Yehowah, and
others. The name, withstanding its
distinction, is to be held in the highest respect and not used in an irreverent
or unconstrained manner. (Exodus 20:7, Ezekiel 36:21-23)
is the life giver, hence Father, of all living things.
However, for all honest hearted Christians He becomes a Father in a
special sense as Romans 8:14-17 says:
”Every one moved by the Spirit is a son of God.
The spirit you received is not the spirit of slaves bringing fear into
your lives again; it is the spirit of sons, and it makes us cry out ,’Abba,
Father!’ The Spirit himself and
our spirit bear united witness that we are children of God.
And if we are children we are heirs as well: heirs of God and coheirs
with Christ, sharing his sufferings so as to share his glory.” (The
Jerusalem Bible) So through this special relationship the Christian has the
most marvelous of hopes, that of seeing his Heavenly Father, God, and of sharing
with Christ as God’s children in His Heavenly Kingdom.
uioV tou Qeou — ho huios tou Theou,
IhsouV CristoV — Iesous Christos)
is God’s spokesman and workman (Word, Logos).
Jesus as the Word was with God at the beginning of creation. God placed
him superior to all other intelligent beings. (Proverbs 8:22-30, John 1:1, 2,
Son of the Almighty God was brought into being as His only-begotten.
He is the very image of God. (Romans 1:4, Colossians 1:15, Hebrews 1:1-4)
is also known by the designation ‘Son of Man.’ He came from Heaven, his life
force and personality being transferred to the womb of Mary.
Whist on the Earth he took completely the human form and often referred
to himself as the ‘Son of Man.’ It is the human Jesus as the ‘Son of
Man’ that is seen ascending to God to receive his kingdom. (Daniel 7:13,
Matthew 1:20-21, John 6:62, 2 John 7)
is the one anointed by God to perform His will. (Psalms 2:2, Isaiah 61:1, Daniel
9:26-27, Luke 4:14-21)
is God’s appointed Saviour for the redemption of his Church and humankind by
his sacrificial ransom. (John 3:16, Acts 4:12, Colossians 1:13-14, 1 Peter
3:18, 1 John 2:2)
became King upon his ascension to Heaven. It
was then that he was given all authority. (Psalms 2:6, Matthew 28:18, 1 Corinthians
15:25; Ephesians 1:19-21)
becomes judge of his own Household when he returns to gather his Church. God has
committed all the judging to His Son. The Son will judge all humanity upon its
resurrection from the dead. (John 5:22-27, Revelation 20:13)
pneumatoV to ‘agioV
— to pneumatos to hagios)
Holy Spirit, or Sacred ‘Pneuma’, is the mental power of God projected to
accomplish His will. Thus the Apostle Paul compares it to the ‘mind of God.’
(Romans 11:34, 1 Corinthians 2:10-16)
It is an invisible force, or intellectual pressure.
Those driven by it desist from sin and manifest the beautiful qualities
of the Holy Spirit, and thus display the personality of God Himself.
As an imperfect human it is necessary to pray continually for it. (Luke
was by means of God’s Holy Spirit that all of creation was able to take place.
It was also by means of the Holy Spirit channeled through Jesus Christ
that the miracles were performed. (Genesis 1:1-2, Acts 3:6, 12, 16, 4:7-10, 6:8)
was the Holy Spirit that gave the Bible writers, the Prophets and the disciples
their guidance and help. (John 14:16, Acts 7:55, Ephesians 4:22-24, 2 Peter
The Son’s, ‘Kingdom of the Heavens’
is the domain or realm over which Jesus rules upon his ascension to Heaven.
(Matthew 13:41, Ephesians 1:18-23, Colossians 1:13)
This ‘kingdom’ is the Church or Body of Christ.
The Father’s ‘Celestial Kingdom’
is the seat of all sovereignty. (Matthew 13:43, 1 Corinthians 15:24-28)
the time that Jesus was baptized in the Jordan he started to form the foundation
of his Church or congregation. Initially
he started with his Twelve Apostles and over the three and half years of his
public ministry many others became his disciples.
It was, however, after his resurrection and the outpouring of the Holy
Spirit, that a large number became Christians.
Throughout the two millennia since then, the ‘Kingdom of the
Heavens’, which had indeed started out like a mustard grain, has become like a
large tree. (Matthew 13:31-32) Nevertheless,
it can be seen that Christ’s Church also contains both ‘wheat’ and
‘weeds.’ At the Second Coming
there will be a separation between the faithful and the unfaithful, with the
faithful being received into the Father’s ‘Celestial Kingdom,’ the Kingdom
of God. (Matthew 13:24-30, 36-43)
true doctrine is from God (John 7:16-17)
Apostle Paul at Hebrews 6:1, 2 defines what is the ‘elementary doctrine of the
Christ’ when he lists:
from dead works
2. Faith in
4. The laying
on of the hands
Resurrection of the dead
the ‘elementary doctrine of the Christ’ listed at Hebrews 6:1, 2 and all the
aforementioned through sections 1 to 5, the Friends
of the Nazarene believe that release from sin and death is by the redemptive
sacrifice of Christ. By means of
the ransom the restitution and the reconciliation of everything Heavenly and
Earthly is assured. (Colossians 1:20)
and his inspired disciples foretold an apostasy, or falling away, from the true
doctrine and order of the early Church. (Matthew 13:38, 39, Acts 20:29, 2 Thessalonians
2:1-12, 1 Timothy 4:1, 2 Timothy 4:3-4, 2 Peter 2:1)
history of the Christian Church reveals such desertion of early teachings and
methods. The doctrines of the Trinity, hell-fire, and the immortality of the
human soul all appear to be examples of apostate teachings.
is a period of three and a half years of persecution that comes upon the
end-time Saints just before the Return of Christ in glory.
It is these end-time Saints who are the ‘large crowd’ that are
delivered from such an oppression. (Daniel 7:21-25, 12:1, Revelation 7:9-14,
11:2-3, 12:17, 13:5-7)
Return, or Parousia of Christ, is visible and follows the great oppression and
celestial darkness. (Matthew 24:29-31, John 14:1-2)
Resurrection of the Church
entire Church (Body or Bride of Christ) is resurrected at the same time upon the
Parousia of Jesus. (1 Corinthians 15:20-23, 50-52, 1 Thessalonians
4:15-16, 1 John 2:28, 3:2)
Rapture of the end-time Saints
at the end of the great oppression the living end-time Saints are rescued or
delivered by being snatched (or, raptured) out of harm’s way. (Daniel 7:22,
12:1-2, Matthew 24:29-31, 1 Corinthians 15:23, 50-52, 1 Thessalonians
4:16-17, Revelation 11:2-3, 12)
Where are we in Prophecy?
one is authorized to proclaim, ‘the time is at hand,’ (Luke 21:8) for no
Christian knows the time of the Parousia and the Day of Wrath. (Matthew 24:36,
the Master or King returns he first inspects or judges his own Household of
Faith, the realm of his domain. The weeds, or goats, are destroyed. The wheat,
or sheep, inherit the Kingdom of the Father. (Matthew 24:45 to 25:46, 2 Corinthians
5:10, 1 John 2:28, 4:17)
Day of Wrath
Commencement of the Day of Wrath
foretold time when the winds of destruction break forth upon mankind resulting
in the death of one-third of humanity. (Revelation 7:1-3, 9:15)
This is a war between the Lamb, with his Church, and all the kings of the
Earth. (Revelation 16:14, 16, 17:14, 19:11-16)
Where is the Church?
Church is in Heaven during the Day of Wrath and the out-pouring of the final
plagues of God’s anger. (Revelation 7:9-17, 15:2, 17:14)
or counterfeit Christianity — ‘religion’ itself — is destroyed by the
human political leaders under divine influence. This occurs after the Church is
gone and before ‘Armageddon.’ (Revelation 14:8, 18:4, 21)
war between the Lamb with his Church and the political leaders of the World.
(Revelation 16:14, 16, 19:11-16)
The binding of the Devil
is abyssed, or confined to his prison before the start of the Thousand Years.
period of a thousand years is the time when Messiah reigns with his Church over
the World. It is an interval of rule without the Devil’s influence, during
which death and sin continue but are subdued at the end of the Thousand Year
period. (Isaiah 65:17-22, 1 Corinthians 6:2, Revelation 11:15, 20:4,
Revelation 20:3-7, 14)
the end of the Thousand Years and the destruction of the Devil, all mankind will
be resurrected for their own judgement. This judgment is based on their previous
conduct during their former life on earth. Then those approved in this final
judgement will be blessed with everlasting life on Earth. (Matthew 12:36-37,
John 5:27-29, Acts 17:31, Romans 2:15, 16, Hebrews 9:27, Revelation 20:5, 12-15)
is unconscious non-existence in a ‘sleep’ awaiting the resurrection. Hades
(or, hell) is gravedom where all await a resurrection and then their judgement.
The Bible does not teach a place of eternal torment, nor the immortality of the
human soul. (Job 14:12-14, Psalm 146:3-4, Ecclesiastes 3:19-21, 9:5, 10, Ezekiel
18:20, John 5:28-29, Hebrews 9:27, Revelation 20:13)
Christ is head. (Ephesians 5:23)
Apostles and Prophets are its foundation. (1 Corinthians 12:28, Ephesians
other Christians are members of God’s Household. (Ephesians 2:19)
possible each Church group should have its own ‘Presiding Elder.’ (Romans
12:8, Revelation 1:20)
necessary additional elders or deacons could be appointed by those authorized to
do so. (Acts 6:3, 14:23)
men appointed should already be characterized by the requirements revealed in
Scripture. (1 Timothy 3:1-13, Titus 1:5-9)
Church members, each with their own gifts, are recognized as one body. (1 Corinthians
purpose of the Church is twofold
Build up the Household of God
build up the Household of God in love, faith and hope.(1 Corinthians 13:13,
Ephesians 4:16, Hebrews 10:24)
To teach and encourage in faith and love
To Reveal Christ to the World
up the Household of God
letters sent to the seven congregations, recorded at Revelation chapters 2 and
3, show that each is responsible for its own actions.
The first century Corinthian Church was reported upon by the Apostle Paul
and his findings can be read at First Corinthians chapter 11 through to the end
of chapter 14. The main import was
the need for love, agreement and order. (1 Corinthians 13:1-8a, 11:17-19,
the whole realm of Christ’s kingdom today the structure and arrangements of
the various churches differ greatly. This
is not necessarily a detestation, for Christian freedom permits choice on a
reasonable scope. The
Friends of the Nazarene arrange for congregations of any size to be
established where there is one elder to take the lead and set the example, and
with the ability to organize programs for gatherings and other means to reveal
Christ to the World. These
arrangements would be fixed locally. Through
experience and sagacity arrangements are usually made for a ‘Formal
Ecclesia’ where prayers, hymns, Bible readings, and Scriptural talks are
given. Also an informal
‘Devotional Group’ for prayers, Bible study, exhortations, testimonies,
devotions, and expressions of faith can be made.
At these ‘Devotional Groups’ all may share and participate.
At meetings organized by the Friends
of the Nazarene godly woman may choose to wear a veil or head-covering. [1
Corinthians 11:5, 10, 13, 16] This
would particularly be the case if they were to participate in the absence of an
appointed male; that is, where there was no qualified godly man available to
The Commemoration of the Lord’s Supper
annual commemorative observance of the Lord’s death on the Biblical calendar
date of Nisan 14. Unlike the Jewish Passover, the Memorial is not just a family
observance, but where possible a congregational gathering to demonstrate
communion and unity. (1 Corinthians 11:23-34)
Christ to the World
said: "I believed, and so I
spoke." (2 Corinthians 4:13 Revised Standard Version) It is
natural that persons of faith will use their abilities to witness, or speak to
others about their beliefs and Bible knowledge, acknowledging Christ as their
Saviour and King. (Matthew 25:14-30, Romans 10:9-15, Ephesians 6:15, 1 Peter
is the ‘Gospel’?
is only one ‘gospel’, or message of good news. Those that do not conform to
Paul’s ‘gospel’ are considered anathema by Paul himself. (Galatians 1:8-9)
is the ‘Good News’ today?
Gospel is the good news that anyone may become a prospective member of the Bride
of Christ with a celestial inheritance. (John 6:37, 14:1-3)
family has always been the backbone of any society.
It was once said, that when the family crumbles the nation crumbles.
“The family is the oldest human institution. In many ways it is the most important. It is society’s most basic unit.
Entire civilizations have survived or disappeared, depending on whether
family life was strong or weak.” (The
World Book Encyclopedia 1973) It
was God who initiated the family arrangement, and it is His advice which has
stood the test of time. Whilst many
philosophers have made their mark, often to the detriment of society, the Bible
remains constant with its counsel.
Bible shows that a godly father and mother’s first responsibility is to their
children. The man is head, guide,
provider and protector of his family. Mutual
love and respect is to be displayed between all members.
The father and mother’s role is to raise their children in Christ. And that any children should so honour their parents by their
respect and obedience. (1 Corinthians 7:12-14, Ephesians 5:22 to 6:4,
Colossians 3:18-21, 1 Thessalonians 2:11, 1 Timothy 5:4, 14, Titus
much of the future of the Church rests in its youth, every effort must be made
to train and set the example for the next generation of the Faithful.
Christian is not just another fellow human being driven by the wind of this
world without direction or purpose. True
he is subject to circumstances brought about not of his doing.
But he is a person with a character possessed of faith in God, love for
Him, and hope in Him. He also loves
the Lord Jesus Christ to such an extent that he is prepared to: “Follow the Lamb no matter where he goes.” (Revelation 14:4)
This requires that “God be everything to everyone,” and dedicated
discipleship to Jesus first. (Matthew 16:24-26, John 15:14; 1 Corinthians 15:29)
for God (Mark 12:30)
for neighbour (Mark 12:31)
for enemy manifest by prayer, goodness, and giving (Matthew 5:43-48)
for God’s household (1 John 4:11)
for one’s family (Ephesians 5:28 to 6:4)
after one’s own (1 Timothy 5:4, 8)
after orphans (James 1:27)
after widows (James 1:27)
after the poor (James 2:14-16)
the Holy Spirit in one’s life (Galatians 5:22-26)
the new personality (Ephesians 4:20-24)
uncontaminated by this world (John 17:15-16, James 1:27)
the evil works (Galatians 5:19-21)
judging one’s brother (Matthew 7:1-5)
seems reasonable that a disciple (or learner) of Jesus Christ would have read,
and prayerfully meditated, on the teachings of Jesus in the Gospels. (Matthew
7:24, 1 Timothy 2:3-5; Hebrews 1:1)
follows knowledge, and once seen as true, can be relied upon.
The disciple comes to understand and believe that the sayings of Jesus
are correct and that he is the Christ the Son of God.
He now puts faith in Jesus and places himself in a blessed situation.
disciple’s faith in Christ’s sacrifice aids him to acknowledge that he is a
sinner and in need of forgiveness. So
he laments past and present sins. He
is determined to avoid all future sins. (Matthew 9:13, 1 John 1:5-10)
the disciple confesses his sins and asks for forgiveness he is prepared to live
his life no longer for himself but for the one by whom he gained forgiveness,
Jesus. (Romans 12:1-2, 1 John 2:3-6)
that the disciple has transformed his life to that of God’s will through
Christ his Lord, the Holy Spirit will engender within him in the desire to
acknowledge God’s grace, moving him to be baptized in the name of Jesus.
Complete water immersion in the name of Jesus Christ is among the ways to
‘fulfil all that is righteous’ as a symbol of dedication and consecration to
‘follow the Lamb no matter where he goes’.
It is a step in the process of salvation and sanctification. (Acts 19:5,
1 Peter 3:21) He will then be
driven to confess union with Jesus Christ. (Matthew 10:32)
Christian’s faith helps him in all aspects of his life.
His faith motivates him in all manner of Christian activities. (Romans
12:13, Colossians 3:23-24, Hebrews 10:24)
I can pray with confidence, for his divine power has gifted us with everything
necessary for life and godliness, because we have come to know him who called us
to share his own glory and excellence. It
was through the excellence of his glory that we received the precious and very
great gifts he promised us, and it is through these gifts that you are able to
escape the world’s corruption, which is the fruit of unbridled passion, and so
to become sharers in the divine nature. And
this is the very reason why you must make up your minds to make every effort to
equip your faith with virtue, your virtue with knowledge, your knowledge with
self-mastery, your self-mastery with fortitude; you fortitude with godliness,
your godliness with Christian friendliness; your friendliness with love.
For if you possess these virtues, and if you keep on growing in them, it
will keep you from being ineffective and unproductive on your road to an ever deeper knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ.” (2
Peter 1:3-8 William Barclay) “I
can assure you my brothers, I am far from thinking that I have already won. All
I can say is that I forgot the past and I strain ahead for what is still to
come; I am racing for the finish, for the prize to which God calls us upwards to
receive in Christ Jesus. We who are
called ‘perfect’ must all think in this way.
If there is some point on which you see things differently, God will make
it clear to you; meanwhile, let us go forward on the road that has brought us to
where we are.” (Philippians 3:13-16 The Jerusalem Bible) (Luke 21:19)
him who conquers I will grant to eat of the tree of life which is in the
paradise of God.”
who conquers shall not be hurt by the second death... Be faithful unto death,
and I will give you the crown of life.”
him who conquers I will give some of the hidden manna, and I will give him a
white stone, with anew name written on the stone which no one knows except him
who receives it.”
who conquers and keeps my works until the end, I will give him power over the
nations, and he shall rule them with a rod of iron, as when earthen pots are
broken in pieces, even as I myself have received power from my Father; and I
will give him the morning star.”
who conquers shall be clad thus in white garments, and I will not blot his name
out of the book of life; I will confess his name before my Father and before his
who conquers, I will make him a pillar in the temple of my God; never shall he
go out of it, and I will write on him the name of my God, and the name of the
city of my God, the new Jerusalem which comes down from my God out of heaven,
and my own new name.”
who conquers, I will grant him to sit with me on my throne, as I myself
conquered and sat down with my Father on his throne.”
(Revelation 2:7, 10-11,
17, 26-29, 3:12, 21
Revised Standard Version)
20 April 2000
JN8:26 There are many things I have to say and judge about you [Jews]. However, the One who sent me is real, and what I have heard ‘alongside Him,’ [Proverbs 8:30 LXX] these things I am speaking to the world.” [NCMM]
The phrase “alongside Him” is PAR AUTO in Greek. The
phrase also occurs at John 8:38, 40. In John chapter 8 Jesus refers to his
pre-existence “alongside” the Father before he came into the world. What
proves to be interesting that PAR AUTO also occurs at Proverbs 8:30 in the
context off a created son who was begotten before the creation of the earth.
Proverbs 8:22, 30 reads from the 3rd Century BC Jewish Greek Septuagint: “YHWH created me
[the] beginning of His way for His works. … I was alongside Him [PAR AUTOU]
arranging everything. I was His delight, and daily I rejoiced in His presence
continually.” Jesus makes the same reference again in his Passover Prayer
at John 17:5, “And now
glorify me, Father, alongside Yourself [PARA]
with the glory that I had alongside You [PARA SOI]
before the cosmos existed.” [NCMM] The word “before” [PRO]
is also a word which occurs four times in Proverbs 8:23-25. John 1:1 also uses a
word from Proverbs 8:23, EN ARCHE [in a beginning]. There seems reasonable
material in Jesus’ own words that both he and John allude to Proverbs 8:22-30.
JN8:31 As a result, the Jesus spoke toward those Jews who had believed in him: “As long as you remain in my Word you are my genuine disciples.” [NCMM]
The phrase “genuine disciples” is also rendered by
Goodspeed as “really disciples of mine.” In his parable of the Sower, Jesus
foretold the time when his field would be sown with both wheat and weeds.
[Matthew 13:36-43] The Nazarene’s words above indicate something about
“genuine disciples” and at the same time suggest there are not so genuine or
real disciples. The “genuine disciples” are identified as those Christians
who “remain in [Christ’s] Word.” At the very least such would first have
to know and be familiar with the teachings of Jesus Christ as found in the
Gospels. Then, they would need to “remain” in his Word. The word
“remain” is also rendered: continue, abide, live in, faithful to, hold fast
to, dwell within. Does this not move all with a desire to become more acquainted
with the Lord’s teachings? This can be done by making those red letters in the
Gospels a regular source of personal Bible reading and study. Though all of the
Scriptures are God-breathed [2 Timothy 3:16] we note Hebrews 1:1, 2, “On
many occasions, and in a variety of ways in ancient times, The God spoke to our
[Hebrew] forefathers by means of the Prophets. In these last days He spoke to us
[Hebrews] by means of a Son.” [NCMM]
If we find ourselves losing our godly joy, perhaps it
is due in part because we have ceased remaining in his Word? Nothing heals the
inner person more than letting that Christine “living waters” flood through
our heart and mind. No other portion of Scripture is more filled with God’s
Power than the Words of our Lord Christ.
Psalm 1:2 [Their] greatest pleasure is in the law of Yehowah, and in His law they study day and night.” [ModVer] The phrase “study” here is also rendered: reads in an undertone, talk with himself, meditate, recites, pouring over it. Since most ancient Hebrew worshippers did not possess a copy of the Scriptures, it was vital they learned to remember and recite portions. The psalmist David encourages the godly person to utter these in recitation, as in prayerful meditations, both during the day and during the night. Such sincere efforts will be a source of blessings, or happiness, to the one who has become so familiar with His Word. This kind of person is characterized by several observable things mentioned in Psalm 1:1, 3 – a] they do not walk in ungodly advice; b] walk the road sinners tread; c] join the company of scoffers; and, d] produce fruitage at the proper time. A little meditation on these characteristics and the sincere worshipper can see these things surrounding us in the modern world. Nothing can protect us more than remaining close to the Word. It should be the goal of every Christian disciple to make familiarity with the Word a life-long pleasure so that as years advance more and more perfect gems from God’s Law will be on our tongue as we meditate day and night.
MT13:41 The Son of Humankind will send forth his angels and they will cull out of his Realm everything that causes scandal and those doing lawlessness.” [NCMM]
When the Lord Messiah returns in his foretold visible Parousia he sends out “his angels” [compare “his angels” Revelation 12:7] to cull out – or gather, collect out – all those unrighteous undesirables within the Church throughout its history, living and dead. Jesus mentions these angels in both Matthew 24:31 and Matthew 25:31. Those so removed at the time of Christ’s visible manifestation are described as those who cause “scandal” and are “lawless.” The Greek word for “scandal” is SCANDALA and is also rendered: things that offend, causes stumbling, all who are hindrances, spoiling, those who lead others to do wrong. The history of the Church has been filled with such “scandal.” Such persons who stand before “the judgment-seat of Christ” will meet their professed King in shame. [2 Corinthians 5:10; 1 John 2:28]
The other word used to describe these “sons of the Evil One” is “lawlessness.” Lawlessness may be defined as the transgression of God’s commandments. The apostle John describes “lawlessness” in this manner: “Anybody habitually sinning is a law-breaker. Therefore law-breaking is sin.” [1 John 3:4 NCMM Paraphrase] In John’s context there are two major “commandments” or laws: “Now this is His commandment: first, we believe and trust in the name of His Son Jesus Christ; and, second, love one another just as he commanded.” [1 John 3:23 NCMM Paraphrase] One of the examples John gives in the same chapter is the failure to come to the aid of a brother or sister in need: “For example: if any of us has this world’s resources for maintaining life and is aware than another Christian is in need and yet slams shut the doors of his tender affections – how is it possible that God still loves that person?” [1 John 3:17 NCMM Paraphrase] He actually compares such non-action and disinterest to hatred and murder.
It is interesting to note that “lawlessness” [the breaking of God’s commandments of freedom] is also mentioned in Matthew 7:21-23, “Many will say to me in The Day: ‘Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in your name? And, in your name cast out demons? And, in your name did many dynamic works?’ And then I shall confess to them: ‘I never knew you! Get away from me, those working unlawfully!’” [NCMM] Or, those who were doing “lawlessness.” Yes, they pointed to great works done “in the name of Jesus” but likely these failed the requirement of 1 John 3:23. These “lawless” ones are the “goats” who see the need of even “one of the most humble of [His] brothers” and yet refuse to come to their assistance. Such negative, disinterested persons are not fit for the heavenly Kingdom of God. [Matthew 25:31-46] [MM]
The doctrine of the Trinity has not always been a part of Christian teaching. In fact, this doctrine was not formally stated until the fourth century. It is very interesting to learn about the history of this doctrine. This paper is designed to show how the doctrine began to be discussed, the events that led up to a council regarding it, and the way in which it was finally accepted.
Much of the history you are about to learn is taken from a book entitled The Two Republics, written by A. T. Jones and published in 1891 by The Review and Herald Publishing Company, Battle Creek, Michigan. Unless otherwise noted, all the quotations in this paper are taken from this book. The page numbers will be given for reference. All of my own writing will be set in a different type style.
First, let us look at how the controversy began. The controversy is often called “the Arian controversy.” We pick up the story by looking at an incident that occurred in the city of Alexandria in the early part of the fourth century.
certain Alexander was bishop of Alexandria. Arius was a presbyter in charge of a
parish church in the same city. Alexander attempted to explain ‘the unity of
the Holy Trinity.’ Arius dissented from the views set forth by Alexander. A
sort of synod of the presbyters of the city was called, and the question was
discussed. Both sides claimed the victory, and the controversy spread. Then
Alexander convened a council of a hundred bishops, by the majority of which the
views of Alexander were endorsed. Upon this, Arius was commanded to abandon his
own opinions, and adopt Alexander’s. Arius refused, and Alexander
excommunicated him and all who held with him in opinion, of whom there were a
considerable number of bishops and other clergy, and many of the people.”
As you can see, this was no small controversy.
the Son of God, therefore, is of the same substance, or only of like substance,
with the Father, was the question in dispute. The controversy was carried on in
Greek, and as expressed in Greek the whole question turned upon a single letter.
The word which expressed Alexander’s belief, is Homoousion. The word which expressed the belief of Arius, is Homoiousion.
One of the words has two ‘i’s’ in it, and the other has but one; but why
the word should or should not have that additional ‘i,’ neither party could
ever exactly determine. Even Athanasius himself, who succeeded Alexander in the
bishopric of Alexandria, and transcended him in every other quality, ‘has
candidly confessed that whenever he forced his understanding to meditate upon
the divinity of the Logos, his toilsome and unavailing efforts recoiled on
themselves; that the more he thought, the less he comprehended; and the more he
wrote, the less capable was he of expressing his thoughts.’—Gibbon.”
It is very interesting to note that the main perpetrator of Alexander’s views did not even understand the things which he was so adamant that others accept. Can it be wondered how so many people were reluctant to accept these new views about God?
Let’s look at what Alexander’s ideas entailed.
declared:—‘The Son is immutable and unchangeable, all-sufficient and
perfect, like the Father, differing only
in this one respect, that the Father is unbegotten. He is the exact image of
His Father. Everything is found in the
image which exists in its archetype [original];
and it was this that our Lord taught when He said, ‘My Father is greater than
I.’ And accordingly we believe that the Son proceeded from the Father; for
He is the reflection of the glory of the Father, and the figure of His
substance. But let no one be led from this to the supposition that the Son is
unbegotten, as is believed by some who are deficient in intellectual power: for
to say that He was, that He has always been, and that He existed before all
ages, is not to say that He is unbegotten.’” (Page 333)
According to Alexander, the only difference between the Father and Son is that the Son was begotten. In explaining how the Son was begotten, Alexander quotes Jesus in saying that He proceeded from the Father. Yet in his final statement Alexander asserts concerning the Son, “that He has always been.” Somehow he struggled to reconcile the idea of the Son being begotten with the new idea that He has always existed. We will examine this new idea later in this paper.
Let us now look at what Arius taught.
said:—‘We say and believe, and have taught, and do teach, that the Son is
not unbegotten, nor in any way unbegotten, even in part; and that He does not
derive His subsistence from any matter; but that by His own will and counsel He
has subsisted before time, and before ages, as perfect God, and only begotten
and unchangeable, and that He existed not before He was begotten, or created, or
purposed, or established. For He was not unbegotten. We are persecuted because we say that the Son had a beginning, but that
God was without beginning. This is really the cause of our persecution, and
likewise, because we say He is from nothing. And this we say, because He is
neither part of God, nor of any subjacent matter.’” (Page 333)
It is interesting to note that Arius used the word “created” when referring to the Son of God, but as you can see from the preceding statement, he understood that Christ was begotten of His Father, and therefore had a beginning. So Arius actually believed that Christ was “the only begotten Son of God.”
for himself wrote a book entitled ‘Thalia,’—Songs of Joy—a collection of songs in which he set forth his views. This
expedient took well, for in the excited state of the parties, his doctrinal
songs were hummed everywhere. Alexander on his part, likewise, sent circular
letters to the principal bishops round about. The controversy spread everywhere,
and as it spread, it deepened.” (Page 332)
millers, and travelers sang the disputed doctrines at their occupations or on
Every corner, every alley of the city [this was said afterwards of
Constantinople, but must have been still more true of Alexandria] was full of
these discussions—the streets, the market-places, the drapers, the
money-changers, the victualers. Ask a man ‘how many oboli?’ he answers by
dogmatizing on generated and ungenerated being. Inquire
the price of bread, and you are told, ‘The Son is subordinate to the
Father.’ Ask if the bath is ready, and you are told, ‘The Son arose out
golden dream of a united Christendom was again grievously disturbed.” (Page
In an effort to bring the two parties together Constantine wrote a long letter to Arius and Alexander expressing his desire of having a united kingdom. This letter, however, had the opposite effect, because it caused each party to be more eager than ever to gain the emperor’s approval. The contention was deepened rather than abated.
In an attempt to settle the matter Constantine called a general council in A. D. 325 held in a city called Nice, thus known as “The Council of Nicaea.” There were 318 bishops present, not including an innumerable company of deacons, presbyters, acolytes, and other attendants.
great question that had caused the calling of the council was taken up. There
were three parties in the council—those who sided with Alexander, those who
sided with Arius, and those who were non-committal, or, through hope of being
mediators, held the middle ground. Arius, not being a bishop, could not hold
an official seat in the council, but he had come at the express command of
Constantine, and ‘was frequently called upon to express his opinions.’
Athanasius, who was more responsible for the present condition of the dispute
than was Alexander himself, though only a deacon, came with his bishop
Alexander. He, likewise, though not entitled to an official place in the
council, played not a small part in the discussion and in bringing about the
final result of the council.
party of Alexander and Athanasius, it was soon discovered, could depend upon the
majority of the council; and they
determined to use this power in the formulation of such a statement of doctrine
as would suit themselves first, and if it should be found impossible for the
party of Arius honestly to accept it, so much the better they would be pleased.
discussion, some of the songs which Arius had written, were read. As soon as
Alexander’s party heard them, they threw up their hands in horror, and then
clapped them upon their ears and shut their eyes, that they might not be defiled
with the fearful heresy.” (Page 347)
Notice that this same response was used by a group of people in the Bible. Stephen had just given a long speech on Jewish history when he exclaimed that they were guilty of murdering the Son of God. “Then they cried out with a loud voice, and stopped their ears, and ran upon him with one accord, And cast him out of the city, and stoned him: and the witnesses laid down their clothes at a young man’s feet, whose name was Saul.” (Acts 7:57, 58)
draft of a creed was brought in, signed by eighteen bishops of the party of
Arius; but it was not suffered to exist long enough for anybody ever to obtain a
copy. Their opponents broke into a wild uproar, tore the document to pieces, and
expelled Arius from the assembly.
Eusebius of Cæsarea,—Constantine’s panegyrist—thought to bring the
parties together by presenting a creed
that had been largely in use before this dispute ever arose. He stated that this
confession of faith was one which he had learned in his childhood, from the
bishop of Cæsarea, and one which he accepted at his baptism, and which he had
taught through his whole career, both as a presbyter and as a bishop. As an
additional argument, and one which he intended to be of great weight in the
council, he declared that ‘it had been approved by the emperor, the beloved of
heaven, who had already seen it.’ It read as follows:—
believe in one God, the Father Almighty, maker of all things both visible and
invisible, and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Word of God, God of God, Light of
Light, Life of Life, the only begotten
Son, the First-born of every creature, begotten of the Father before all worlds,
by whom also all things were made. Who for our salvation was made flesh, and
lived amongst men, and suffered, and rose again on the third day, and ascended
to the Father, and shall come in glory to judge the quick and the dead. And we
believe in one Holy Ghost. Believing each of them to be and to have existed, the
Father, only the Father; and the Son, only the Son; and the Holy Ghost, only the
Holy Ghost: as also our Lord sending forth His own disciples to preach, said,
‘Go and teach all nations, baptizing them into the name of the Father, and of
the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:’ concerning which things we affirm that it is
so, and that we so think, and that it has long so been held, and that we remain
steadfast to death for this faith, anathematizing every godless heresy. That we
have thought these things from our heart and soul, from the time that we have
known ourselves, and that we now think and say thus in truth, we testify in the name
of Almighty God, and of our Lord Jesus Christ, being able to prove even by
demonstration, and to persuade you that
in the past times also thus we believed and preached.’” (Pages 347, 348)
Eusebius of Cæsarea, the man who presented this creed, wrote a book entitled Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History. In this book, he states his beliefs, which are the beliefs he learned as a child, which he taught throughout his career. He states:
no one hath known the Father, but the Son, so no one on the other hand, can know
the Son fully, but the Father alone, by
whom He was begotten. For who but the Father hath thoroughly understood that
Light which existed before the world was—that intellectual and substantial
wisdom, and that living Word which in the beginning was with the Father, before
all creation and any production visible or invisible, the first and only offspring of God, the prince and leader of the
spiritual and immortal host of heaven, the angel of the mighty council, the
agent to execute the Father’s secret will, the maker of all things with the
Father, the second cause of the universe
next to the Father, the true and only Son of the Father, and the Lord and
God and King of all created things, who
has received power, and dominion with divinity itself, and power and honour from
introduces the Father and maker as the
Ruler of all, commanding with His sovereign nod, but the divine word as next to
Him, the very same that is proclaimed to us, as ministering to His Father’s
The Son Himself,
however, by no means indifferent to the worship of the Father, is appointed to
teach the knowledge of the Father to all¼
Of Him, Moses obviously speaks as
the second after the Father,¼
intrusted with the second rank of sovereignty and rule over all,
‘the captain of the Lord’s host,¼’”
(Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History,
It is clear that Eusebius of Cæsarea understood that Christ was begotten (born) by the Father before all things. In his book he also quotes Proverbs 8:22-30 to prove his point.
In the back of the book just mentioned, there are several letters written shortly after the Council of Nicaea. I will share portions of some of them with you. Here is a portion of a letter written by Eusebius of Nicomedia: (Please note that this is a different Eusebius than the one from Cæsarea.)
never heard, my Lord, of two beings unbegotten, nor of one divided into two; nor
have we learnt or believed that He could suffer any thing corporeal, but that there
is one unbegotten, and another truly from Him,… We believe not only that His
origin cannot be explained in words, but that it cannot be comprehended,…”
(Letter written by Eusebius of Nicomedia—A
Historical View of the Council of Nice, by Isaac Boyle, page 41)
The strange idea that the Father and the Son were both unbegotten (without beginning) was new to the people at that time. They had always understood that there is one unbegotten (without beginning) and another begotten by Him (with a beginning). This was the common understanding of the majority of people at the time of, and prior to, the Council of Nicaea.
Let’s carry on with the events of the Council of Nicaea. Eusebius of Cæsarea had just presented the creed which had been largely used prior to the controversy.
soon as this [the
statement of beliefs by Eusebius]
was read in the council, the party of Arius all signified their willingness to
subscribe to it. But this did not suit the party of Alexander and Athanasius;
it was rather the very thing that they did not want, for ‘they were determined
to find some form of words which no Arian could receive.’” (Page 348)
Please notice that the Arians were in harmony with the teachings of Christians prior to the Council of Nicaea as presented in Eusebius’s creed. Yet this did not suit the party of Alexander.
hunted about, therefore, for some point or some word, upon which they could
reject it. It will be noticed that this creed says nothing about the substance
of the Son of God, while that was the very question which had brought the
council together. Eusebius, bishop of Nicomedia, was chief of the Arians who
held seats in the council. At this point a letter was brought forth which he had
formerly written, in which he had stated that ‘to assert the Son to be
uncreated, would be to say that he was ‘of one substance’—Homoousion—with the Father, and to say that ‘He was of one
substance’ was a proposition evidently absurd.’
gave to the party of Alexander and Athanasius the very opportunity which they
desired; it supplied from the opposite party the very word upon which they had
all the time insisted, and one of the chiefs of that party had declared that the
use of the word in that connection was evidently absurd. If they, therefore,
should insist upon the use of that very word, it would certainly exclude the
Arian party. ‘The letter produced a violent excitement. There was the very
test of which they were in search; the letter was torn in pieces to mark their
indignation, and the phrase which he had
pledged himself to reject became the phrase which they pledged themselves to
adopt.’—Stanley. (Page 349)
Constantine had approved the creed already read by Eusebius, the question of the
party of Alexander now was whether he would approve it with the addition of this
word, and the hopes of both parties now hung trembling upon the emperor. Hosius
and his associates, having the last consultation with him, brought him over to
their side. At the next meeting of the
assembly, he again presented the creed of Eusebius, approved it, and called upon
all to adopt it. Seeing, however, that the majority would not accept the
creed of Eusebius as it was, Constantine decided to ‘gain the assent of the
orthodox, that is, the most powerful, part of the assembly,’ by inserting the
disputed word. ‘He trusted that by this insertion they might be gained, and
yet that, under the pressure of fear and favor, the others might not be
altogether repelled. He therefore took the course the most likely to secure this
result, and professed himself the patron and also the interpreter of the new
ordered the addition of the disputed word. The party of Alexander and Athanasius,
now assured of the authority of the emperor, required the addition of other
phrases to the same purpose, so that when the creed was finally written out in
full, it read as follows:—
believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of all things both visible and
in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God,
begotten of the Father, only begotten, that is to say, of the substance of
the Father, God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten,
not made, being of one substance with the Father, by whom all things were
made, both things in heaven and things in earth; who for us men, and for our
salvation, came down, and was made flesh, and was made man, suffered, and rose
again on the third day, went up into the heavens, and is to come again to judge
the quick and dead.
in the Holy Ghost.
those that say, ‘There was when He was not,’ and ‘Before He was begotten
He was not, and that He came into existence from what was not,’ or who profess
that the Son of God is of a different person or ‘substance.’ or that He is
created, or changeable, or variable, are anathematized by the Catholic
came the original Nicene Creed.” (Pages 348-350)
This creed has been changed from its original. Please notice the changes that were made. Here is a copy of the Nicene Creed as it reads today:
believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, of all
that is seen and unseen. We believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the
Only Son of God, eternally begotten of the Father [Original
Son of God, begotten of the Father, only begotten],
God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God, begotten, not made, of
one Being with the Father [Original
is to say, of the substance of the Father].
Through Him all things were made. For us men and for our salvation He came down
from heaven: by the power of the Holy Spirit He was born of the Virgin Mary [Added
in], and became man.
For our sake He was crucified under Pontius Pilate; He suffered death and was
buried.’” (The Ordinary of the Mass)
Catholics define the term “eternally begotten” in this way:
Christian belief is that the Christ of history is the Son of God, eternally
begotten by one ceaseless action from the Father¼”
(Tell Us About God¼
Who Is He?, page
30, by the Knights of Columbus)
This is what the Catholic Church teaches today. They claim that the term, “eternally begotten” means that Christ was begotten of the Father in one ceaseless action. They claim that Christ has been in the process of being begotten forever in the past, is still being begotten, and will continue to be begotten forever in the future. They apparently adopted this idea in an attempt to reconcile this new teaching of Christ always existing with the plain Bible statements that Christ was begotten of His Father.
Notice this interesting quote taken from a letter written by Arius.
even expelled us from the city as atheists, because we do not assent to such declarations
as follow, publicly uttered by him. ‘God is always, the Son is always. The
Father and the Son are co-existent. The
Son, unbegotten, co-exists with God, and is always begotten: without being
begotten, He is begotten: [Footnote:
There appears to have been some confusion
of ideas in the mind of the bishop, if his words are correctly reported by Arius.
It is probable that this passage is intended to express what is called the
‘eternal generation’ of the Son, a phrase, however, which, itself,
may not be considered as remarkably perspicuous (distinct,
plain)]: nor does God
precede the Son in thought, nor by a single moment. Always God, always the Son.
From God himself the Son exists.’ Because Eusebius,
your brother, bishop of Cæsarea, and Theodotus and Paulinus, Athanasius,
Gregorius and Aetius, and all the bishops
of the East, affirm, that God, who is without a beginning, existed before the
Son, they have been condemned,…” (Letter by Arius to Eusebius, Bishop of
Nicomedia; taken from A Historical View of
the Council of Nice with a Translation of Documents, by Isaac Boyle, pages
As you can see, the new idea that Christ has existed as long as the Father was not generally accepted before the Council of Nicaea, nor after the council did all Christians accept this new idea.
Let us also notice another change that has been made to the Nicene Creed since the time it was originally written.
The term “of one Being with the Father” was added into the new creed, describing their current belief that the Father and the Son are the same being.
St. Austin said,
is one Person, and the Father is another; they do not, however, constitute two
Beings, but the Father is the same Being that the Son is, that is, the only true
God.” (Tract. 36, in Joann)
When the Nicene Creed was first signed by those at the council, some were specifically concerned with the term “of the substance of the Father.” They were concerned that some may take this to mean that the Father and Son are the same Being. Please notice the following quotation taken from a letter written by Eusebius of Cæsarea.
this form was dictated by the prelates, their
expressions ‘of the substance of the Father,’ and ‘consubstantial with the
Father,’ were not suffered to pass without examination. Hence, therefore,
several questions arose, and answers were made, and the sense of these terms was carefully considered. They admitted that
the words ‘of the substance’ signified that the Son was of the Father, but
not as a part of the Father [the
same Being]. We
thought it well to assent to this explanation, as conveying the pious doctrine,
that the Son was of the Father; but not, however, a part of the Father. We
therefore agreed to this opinion; nor did we reject the word consubstantial,
having in view the promotion of peace, and being anxious to avoid a departure
from the right belief. For the same reason, we approved also of the words
‘begotten, not made,’ since the word make, they said, was common to the
other creatures which were made by the Son, and to which He has nothing similar;
and that therefore He is not made like those who were created by Himself, but is
of a more excellent substance than any created being. The divine oracles inform us, that He was of the Father, by a mode of
generation, which can neither be conceived nor expressed by any created
by the expression ‘consubstantial with the Father’ nothing else is intended,
than that the Son of God has no similitude with created beings, but resembles in
all things the Father only, by whom He was begotten,
and that He is of no other substance or essence than that of the Father. The
proposition being thus explained, we thought that we might justly accede to it;¼
finally embraced, without further contention, those expressions which were found
to be unexceptionable, when, on a candid examination of the sense of the words, it
appeared that they entirely agreed with those admitted by ourselves, in the
exposition of faith which we at first proposed.” (Taken from a letter
written by Eusebius Pamphilus of Cæsarea to the church at Cæsarea in A
Historical View of the Council of Nice with a Translation of Documents,
pages 44-46 by Isaac Boyle.)
It is very clear that Eusebius of Cæsarea did not believe that Christ was a created being in any way but that he was begotten of His Father, thus making Him of a much higher nature than any created being. It is also interesting to notice that Eusebius of Cæsarea was writing to Arians, defending his signing of the creed. This view did not seem to be contrary to the beliefs of the Arians. Also, his belief that Christ was begotten rather than created was accepted by the party of the Athanasians as suitable to allow him to continue in his position as a bishop.
Eusebius wrote that it appeared to him, along with his associates, as if the terms “of the substance of the Father” and “consubstantial with the Father” entirely agreed with what Eusebius had first brought out as a statement of beliefs, which beliefs the Arians all agreed to subscribe to.
The disputed terms were added to the creed, and depending upon the definition of those terms, even some of those of the Arian persuasion could agree to the creed. Yet with the terms being added to the creed all it took was a revision of the definitions of the terms at a later date to come up with the teachings which the Catholic Church holds today.
Now back to the description of the council found in The Two Republics. The original Nicene Creed was just read before the assembly.
came the original Nicene Creed. Constantine’s influence carried with it many
in the council, but seventeen bishops refused to subscribe to it. The
emperor then commanded all to sign it under penalty of banishment. This
brought to terms all of them but five. Eusebius
of Cæsarea, the panegyrist and one of the counselors of Constantine, took a
whole day to ‘deliberate.’ In his deliberation he consulted the emperor, who
so explained the term Homoousion that
it could be understood as Homoiousion.
He ‘declared that the word, as he understood it, involved no such material
unity of the persons of the Godhead as Eusebius feared might be deduced from
it.’—Stanley. In this sense, therefore, Eusebius adopted the test, and
subscribed to the creed.” (Page 350)
Concerning the difference between the two terms that caused the controversy, homoiosian (of like substance) and homoousian (of the same substance), Benjamin G. Wilkinson wrote the following:
those who would think in terms of homoiosian
or ‘similar,’ instead of homoousian,
or ‘identical,’ were promptly labeled as heretics and Arians by the clergy.
Yet when the emperor, Constantine, in full assembly of the Council of Nicaea,
asked Hosius, the presiding bishop, what the difference was between the two
terms, Hosius replied that they were both alike. At this all but a few bishops
broke out into laughter and teased the chairman with heresy.” (Benjamin G.
Wilkinson, Truth Triumphant, page 92)
The dispute involved definitions of words not even found in the Bible. The difference of the words were so minor that it was hard to determine just what the difference was. Even the leading supporter of the Arian view was willing to subscribe to the main body of the new creed.
of Nicomedia and Theognis of Nice subscribed to the body of the creed, but
refused to subscribe to the curse which it pronounced upon the Arian doctrines. Sentence
of banishment was pronounced; then they yielded and subscribed, yet they
were removed from their bishoprics, and Catholics were put in their places. Two
of the other bishops, however,—Theonas of Marmarica in Libya, and Secundus of
Ptolemais,—absolutely refused from first to last to sign the creed, and they
were banished. As for Arius, he seems to have departed from Nice soon after he
was expelled from the council. Sentence of banishment was pronounced against him
with the others. But as he was the chief expositor of the condemned doctrines,
Constantine published against him the following edict:—
Constantine Maximus Augustus, to the bishops and people: Since Arius has
imitated wicked and impious persons, it is just that he should undergo the like
ignominy. Wherefore as Porphyry, that enemy of piety, for having composed
licentious treatises against religion, found a suitable recompense, and such as
thenceforth branded him with infamy overwhelming him with deserved reproach, his
impious writings also having been destroyed; so now it seems fit both that Arius
and such as hold his sentiments should be denominated Porphyrians, that they may
take their appellation from those whose conduct they have imitated. And
in addition to this, if any treatise composed by Arius should be discovered, let
it be consigned to the flames, in order that not only his depraved doctrine may
be suppressed, but also that no memorial of him may be by any means left. This
therefore I decree, that if any one shall be detected in concealing a book
compiled by Arius, and shall not instantly bring it forward and burn it, the
penalty for this offense shall be death; for immediately after conviction the
criminal shall suffer capital punishment. May God preserve you.’” (Pages
book, ‘Thalia,’ was burnt on the spot; and this example was so generally
followed, that it became a very rare work.’—Stanley.
The decree banishing Arius was shortly so modified as simply to prohibit his
returning to Alexandria.” (Page 351)
The Catholic Church exerted all her power to destroy any records of what Arius believed. The only records we have are those that either fell through the hands of the Catholic power, or those which they have chosen to keep, whether in their original form or altered by them.
erroneous charge was circulated that all who were called Arians believed that
Christ was a created being. [Footnote:
It is doubtful if many believed Christ to
be a created being. Generally, those evangelical bodies who opposed the papacy
and who were branded as Arians confessed both the divinity of Christ and that He
was begotten, not created, by the Father. They recoiled from other extreme
deductions and speculations concerning the Godhead.]” (Benjamin G. Wilkinson,
Truth Triumphant, page 92)
the teachings of Arius were such as are usually represented to us or not, who
can say? Phillipus Limborch doubts that Arius himself ever held that Christ was
created instead of being begotten [Footnote:
Limborch, The History of the Inquisition,
page 95].” (Benjamin G. Wilkinson, Truth
Triumphant, page 142)
It is interesting that the history of the Arian controversy has been so well hidden that it is hard to determine just what Arius believed. Yet it seems doubtful that all the accusations brought against Arius and those of like persuasion are accurate. It had become the general rule to brand all those who did not subscribe to the Trinity doctrine as Arians. Since it is commonly thought that Arians believe that Christ is a created being, and thus not divine, it has been the continual accusation that if you deny the Trinity doctrine, you believe that Christ is a created being, and deny the divinity of Christ. This accusation, when applied to those who dissented with the accepted teachings of the Catholic Church on this subject, has seldom been accurate.
before remarked, those who against their will had subscribed to the creed of the
Council of Nice, were determined to redeem themselves as soon as possible, and
by whatever means it could be accomplished. And they did accomplish it. The
story is curious, and the lessons which it teaches are valuable¼
d. 327 died Constantine’s sister, Constantia. She had held with the
Arian party, having an Arian presbyter as her spiritual adviser. This presbyter
had convinced her that Arius had been unjustly condemned by the council. In her
dying moments ‘she entreated the emperor to reconsider the justice of the
sentence against that innocent, as she declared, and misrepresented man.’
Constantine soon afterward sent a message to Arius, recalling him from
banishment, and promising to send him back to Alexandria. Arius came and
presented a confession of faith which proved satisfactory to the emperor. About
the same time Constantine also restored to favor the other two leading Arians,
Eusebius of Nicomedia and Theognis of Ptolemais. ‘They returned in triumph to
their dioceses, and ejected the bishops who had been appointed to their
place.’—Milman. Hosius having
returned to his place in Spain, Constantine fell under strong Arian influences,
and the Arian bishops began to use him for the accomplishment of their purposes.
d. 328, Constantine made a journey to Jerusalem to dedicate the church
that he had built there, and Eusebius of Nicomedia and Theognis both accompanied
him.” (Pages 355, 356)
The Arians had finally won the support of Constantine, and Constantine was now even traveling around the empire with the chief theologians in the Arian party. The Arian influences upon Constantine were very strong indeed. They were successful in sending Athanasius into exile five different times by the power of the emperor.
was again condemned, and banished to Treves in Gaul, February, a.
return of Arius to Alexandria was the cause of continued tumult, and he was
called to Constantinople. At the request of the emperor, Arius presented a new
confession of faith, which proved satisfactory, and Constantine commanded the
bishop of Constantinople to receive Arius to the fellowship of the church on a
day of public worship—‘it happened to be a Sabbath (Saturday)—on which
day, as well as Sunday, public worship was held at Constantinople.’—Neander.
The bishop absolutely refused to admit him. The Arians, under the authority of
the emperor, threatened that the next day, Sunday, they would force their way
into the church, and compel the admission of Arius to full membership in good
and regular standing. Upon this the Athanasian party took refuge in
‘prayer;’ the bishop prayed earnestly that, rather than the church should be so
disgraced, Arius might die; and, naturally enough, Arius died on the evening of
the same day. ‘In Constantinople, where men were familiar with Asiatic
crimes, there was more than a suspicion
of poison. But when Alexander’s party proclaimed that his prayer had been
answered, they forgot what then that prayer must have been, and that the
difference is little between praying for the death of a man and compassing
it.’—Draper.” (Pages 358, 359)
after petition was presented to Constantine for the return of Athanasius to his
place in Alexandria, but the emperor steadily denounced him as proud, turbulent,
obstinate, and intractable, and refused all petitions. In 337, in the presence
of death, Constantine was baptized by an
Arian bishop; and thus closed the life of him upon whom a grateful church
has bestowed the title of ‘the Great,’ though, ‘tested by character,
indeed, he stands among the lowest of all those to whom the epithet has in
ancient or modern times been applied.’—‘Encyclopedia Britannica,’ Article ‘Constantine.’ (Page 359)
was succeeded by his three sons; Constantine, aged twenty-one years; Constantius,
aged twenty; and Constans, aged seventeen. They apportioned the empire amongst
themselves. Constantine II had Constantinople and some portions of the West,
with pre-eminence of rank; Constantius obtained Thrace, Egypt, and all the East;
and Constans held the greater part of the West. Constantius
was a zealous Arian, Constantine and Constans were no less zealous Catholics.”
same year [a. d. 340] Constantine
II was killed in a war with his brother Constans. This left the empire and the
religion to the two brothers—Constantius in Constantinople and the East,
Constans in the West. In the dominions of
Constans all Arians were heretics; in the dominions of Constantius all Catholics
were heretics. The religious war continued, and increased in violence.”
February, a. d. 350, Constans was
murdered by the usurper Magnentius, and in 353 Constantius became sole emperor
by the final defeat and death of the usurper. Constantius no sooner felt himself
assured of the sole imperial authority, than he determined to execute vengeance upon Athanasius, and make the Arian
doctrine the religion of the whole empire. Yet he proposed to accomplish
this only in orthodox fashion, through a general council. As it was thus that
his father had established the Athanasian doctrine, which was held by all the
Catholics to be strictly orthodox, to establish the Arian doctrine by a like
process, assuredly could be no less orthodox.” (Page 366)
officers immediately began with the greatest possible secrecy to gather the
necessary troops into the city. Twenty-three days were thus spent, and a force
of five thousand troops held possession of the most important parts of the city.
The night before a solemn festival day of the church, Athanasius was conducting
the services in the church of St. Theonas. Suddenly, at midnight, there was all
about the church the sound of trumpets, the rushing of horses, and the clash of
arms; the doors were burst open, and with the discharge of a cloud of arrows,
the soldiers, with drawn swords, poured in to arrest Athanasius. ‘The cries of
the wounded, the groans of those who were trampled down in attempting to force
their way out through the soldiery, the shouts of the assailants, mingled in
wild and melancholy uproar.’—Milman. In the tumult, Athanasius again escaped.” (Pages 372, 373)
Scenes like these were not uncommon. The marriage of the church with the state resulted in every kind of violence. Bishops were elected and ordained while being surrounded by heavily armed guards to protect them from the mutinous crowds over which they were to preside.
summer of a. d. 359, more than four
hundred bishops assembled at Rimini, of whom eighty were Arians. One hundred and
sixty assembled at Seleucia, of whom one hundred and five were Semi-Arians;
about forty were Arians, while the Catholics were still fewer in number. A civil
officer of high rank was appointed to represent the emperor at each council, and
the one appointed to Rimini was directed not to allow any bishop to go home
until all ‘had come to one mind concerning the faith.’ That there might be
as little difficulty as possible in coming to one mind, a creed was drawn up and
sent to the council to be signed. There were at that time present with the
emperor at Sirmium five bishops, one of whom was George of Alexandria, and all
of whom were Arians or Semi-Arians. They drew up a creed, the main points of
which were as follows:—
believe in one only and true God, the Father and Ruler of all, Creator and Demiurge
of all things, and in one only begotten Son of God, who was begotten of the
Father without change before all ages, and all beginning, and all conceivable
time, and all comprehensible substance¼
God from God, similar to the Father, who has begotten Him according to the Holy
Scriptures, whose generation no one knows [understands] but the Father who has
The words ousia, because it was used
by the Fathers in simplicity [that is, with good intention], but not being
understood by the people, occasions scandal, and is not contained in the
Scriptures, shall be put aside, and in future no mention shall be made of the Usia
with regard to God¼
But we maintain that the Son is similar to the Father in all things, as
also the Holy Scriptures teach and say.’” (Pages 377, 378)
Constantius used his power to persuade all to sign. Just as his father before him, Constantius threatened banishment upon all those who would not sign his creed. Notice what is written about the Council of Milan just a few years prior to this council.
declared that whoever did not sign might expect banishment. At this the orthodox
bishops lifted up their hands beseechingly towards heaven, and prayed the
emperor ‘to fear God, who had given him the dominion, that it might not be
taken from him; also to fear the day of judgment, and not to confound the
secular power with the law of the church, nor to introduce into the church the
forgot that they themselves, many of them at least, had unanimously approved in
Constantine at the Council of Nice the identical course which now they condemned
in Constantius at the Council of Milan. In their approval of the action of
Constantine in forcing upon others what they themselves believed, they robbed
themselves of the right to protest when Constantius or anybody else should
choose to force upon them what somebody else believed. They ought not to have
thought it strange that they should reap what they had sown.” (Page 368)
We can learn an important lesson from this episode. Anytime someone uses force, whether by the government or by any other means, to persuade others to believe as they do, they are certainly following the course of Satan and all his followers. There is no sanction in the Bible for using force to persuade others to believe a certain way. This spirit was manifested by the Catholic Church many times throughout the Dark Ages. This spirit is the spirit of the devil. Let us ever remember this valuable lesson.
Constantius succeeded in making the Arian doctrine orthodox in A. D. 360.
emperor’s confession was then published throughout the whole empire, and all
bishops were commanded to sign it, under penalty of exile upon all who refused.
‘This order was executed with the utmost rigor in all the provinces of the
empire, and very few were found who did not sign with their hands what they
condemned in their hearts. Many who till then had been thought invincible, were
overcome, and complied with the times; and such as did not, were driven, without
distinction, from their sees into exile, and others appointed in their room, the
signing of that confession being a qualification indispensably requisite both in
obtaining and keeping the episcopal dignity. Thus
were all the sees throughout the empire filled with Arians, insomuch that in the
whole East not an orthodox bishop was left, and in the West but one; namely,
Gregory, bishop of Elvira in Andalusia, and he, in all likelihood, obliged to
absent himself from his flock and lie concealed.’—Bower.
Constantius had succeeded much more fully than had his father, in establishing
‘the unity of the faith.’ That faith was the original Arian. And
Arianism was now as entirely orthodox, and, if the accommodated sense of the
word be used, as entirely Catholic, as the Athanasian had ever been.”
(Pages 381, 382)
This period of history is quite well ignored by most Catholics. Few would want to admit that the Arian doctrine was considered orthodox at any time in the history of the Catholic Church.
This was not, however, the end of the controversy. As we will see, the Athanasian doctrine was again established in the Catholic Church.
Valentinian died, and was succeeded by his two sons, Gratian, aged sixteen
years, and Valentinian II, aged four years.
was but the tool of the bishops. Ambrose was at that time bishop of Milan, and
never was episcopal ambition more arrogantly asserted than in that insolent
prelate. Soon the mind of the bishop asserted the supremacy over that of the boy
emperor, and Ambrose ‘wielded at his will the weak and irresolute Gratian.’—Milman.
But above all things else that Gratian did, that which redounded most to the
glory of the Catholic Church was his choice of Theodosius as associate emperor.
Valens was killed in a battle with the Goths, a.
d. 378. A stronger hand than that of a youth of nineteen was required to
hold the reins of government in the East.
establishment of the Catholic Church, the place of Theodosius is second only to
that of Constantine. About the beginning of the year 380 he was baptized by the
Catholic bishop of Thessalonica, and immediately afterward he issued the
is our pleasure that the nations which are governed by our clemency and
moderation, should steadfastly adhere to the religion which was taught by St.
Peter to the Romans, which faithful tradition has preserved, and which is now
professed by the pontiff Damasus, and by Peter, bishop of Alexandria, a man of
apostolic holiness. According to the discipline of the apostles, and the
doctrine of the gospel, let us believe the sole deity of the Father, the Son,
and the Holy Ghost: under an equal majesty, and a pious Trinity. [This
is the first mention of the word Trinity
in any of the creeds or edicts, to the best of my knowledge.]
We authorize the followers of this doctrine to assume the title of Catholic
Christians; and as we judge that all others are extravagant madmen, we brand
them with the infamous name of ‘heretics,’ and declare that their
conventicles shall no longer usurp the respectable appellation of churches.
Besides the condemnation of divine justice, they must expect to suffer the
severe penalties which our authority, guided by heavenly wisdom, shall think
proper to inflict upon them.’
law was issued in the names of the three emperors, Gratian, Valentinian II, and
Theodosius. ‘Thus the religion of the
whole Roman world was enacted by two feeble boys and a rude Spanish soldier.’—Milman.
Constantinople the Catholics were so few that at the accession of Theodosius
they had no regular place of meeting, nor had they any pastor.” (Pages 387, 388)
beginning of the year 381 Theodosius issued an edict expelling from all the
churches within his dominions, all the bishops and other ecclesiastics who
should refuse to subscribe to the creed of Nice. By a commissioned officer with
a military force, the edict was executed in all the provinces of the East.
Having thus established his religion throughout the empire, the next thing to do
was to have a general council endorse his action, compose the disputes which
disturbed the Catholic party itself, and again settle the faith of the Catholic
Church. To this end a general council was called to meet at Constantinople this
same year, a. d. 381.
council met in the month of May, and was composed of one hundred and eighty-six
bishops—one hundred and fifty Catholics, and thirty-six Macedonians.” (Pages
hundred and fifty bishops framed the following creed:—
believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth, and of all
things visible and invisible. And in one
Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before
all times [ages] [Notice
that they still believed that the Son of God was begotten of the Father before
all ages], Light from
Light, very God from very God, begotten, not created, of the same substance with
the Father, by whom all things were made; who for us men, and for our salvation,
came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary,
and was made man; who was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, suffered and
was buried, and the third day he rose again according to the Scriptures, and
ascended into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of the Father; and He shall
come again with glory to judge both the living and the dead; whose kingdom shall
have no end. And we believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Life-giver, who
proceedeth from the Father; who with the Father and the Son together is
worshipped and glorified; who spake by the prophets. And in one Holy Catholic
and apostolic Church. We acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins. We
look for a resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come.
Amen.’” (Page 396)
Up until this time the main part of the controversy was over the relationship of the Father and His Son. But with this new creed the addition of the Holy Spirit as a third individual was added. It was thus that the actual doctrine of the Trinity was first presented in a creed.
Although the doctrine of the Trinity was voted by the majority, many would not subscribe to the teachings of the Catholic Church on this matter.
will blame the evangelicals for recoiling from the papal view of the Trinity,
when history shows that their views were strong enough to cause two popes to
sign decrees contrary to the policy of the papacy respecting Nicaea.”
(Benjamin G. Wilkinson, Truth Triumphant,
who recoiled from the extreme speculations and conclusions of the so-called
Trinitarians believed Deuteronomy 29:29: ‘The secret things belong unto the
Lord our God: but those things which are revealed belong unto us and to our
children forever.’” (Benjamin G. Wilkinson, Truth
Triumphant, pages 93, 94)
The Waldensian Christians, who held the true gospel throughout the Dark Ages, did not believe in the doctrine of the Trinity.
wonder that the Celtic, the Gothic, the Waldensian, the Armenian Churches, and
the great Church of the East, as well as other bodies, differed profoundly from
the papacy in its metaphysical conceptions of the Trinity and consequently in
the importance of the Ten Commandments.” (Benjamin G. Wilkinson, Truth
Triumphant, page 94)
Claude, while maintaining that Christ was divine by nature, did not accept the
extreme speculations concerning the Godhead voted by the first Council of Nicaea.
This was true of most of the evangelical bodies which differed from the Church
of Rome.” (Benjamin G. Wilkinson, Truth
Triumphant, page 222)
Those who rejected the doctrine of the Trinity did so because it affected many other doctrines.
doctrine of the Trinity]
had, however, such profound effect upon other doctrines relating to the plan of
salvation and upon outward acts of worship that a gulf was created between the
papacy and the institutions of the church which Patrick had founded in
Ireland.” (Benjamin G. Wilkinson, Truth
Triumphant, page 92)
burning question of the decades succeeding the Council of Nicaea was how to
state the relations of the Three Persons of the Godhead: Father, Son, and Holy
Ghost. The council had decided, and the
papacy had appropriated the decision as its own.” (Benjamin G. Wilkinson, Truth
Triumphant, page 91)
To this day, the papacy admits that the doctrine of the Trinity was formulated by her.
mystery of the Trinity is the central doctrine of the Catholic Faith. Upon it
are based all the other teachings of the Church¼
Church studied this mystery with great care and, after four centuries of
clarification, decided to state the doctrine in this way: in the unity of the
Godhead there are three Persons,—the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit¼”
for Today’s Catholic, page 11)
sometimes claim that no belief should be held dogmatically which is not
explicitly stated in Scripture (ignoring that it is only on the authority of the
Church we recognize certain Gospels and not other as true). But the Protestant churches have themselves accepted such dogmas as the
Trinity for which there is no such precise authority in the Gospels¼“
(Life Magazine, October 30, 1950)
The Catholic Church did not acquire the doctrine of the Trinity from the Bible, but rather adopted it from the pagan religions.
Platonic trinity, itself merely a rearrangement of older trinities dating back
to earlier peoples, appears to be the rational philosophic trinity of attributes
that gave birth to the three hypostases or divine persons taught by the
Christian churches.… This Greek philosopher’s [Plato,
fourth century B.C.]
conception of the divine trinity… can be found in all the ancient [pagan]
religions.” (Paris, 1865-1870, Nouveau
Dictionnaire Universel, edited by M. Lachâtre, Vol. 2, page 1467)
Justin Martyr, quoting from Proverbs 8, refers to Christ in the following statement:
created me the beginning of His ways for His works.… He begets me before all
He adds: “You
perceive, my hearers, if you bestow attention, that the
Scripture has declared that this Offspring was begotten by the Father before all
things created; and that which is begotten is numerically distinct from that
which begets, any one will admit.” (Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho, Chapter CXXIX)
Irenaeus of Lyons wrote,
the Church, although dispersed throughout the whole world even to the ends of
the earth, has received from the apostles and from their disciples the faith in
God, Father Almighty,
the creator of heaven and earth and sea and all that is in them; and in one
Jesus Christ, the Son of God.” (Against
Heresies 1:10:1 [A.D. 189])
indeed believe that there is only one God, but we believe that under this
dispensation, or, as we say, oikonomia, there
is also a Son of this one only God, his Word, who proceeded from him and
through whom all things were made and without whom nothing was made.” (Against
Praxeas 2 [A.D. 216])
specific points which are clearly handed down through the apostolic preaching
are these: First, that there is one God who created and arranged all things, and
who, when nothing existed, called all things into existence, and that in the
final period this God, just as he had promised beforehand through the prophets,
sent the Lord Jesus Christ. Secondly, that Jesus Christ himself, who came, was born of the Father before all creatures; and after he had
ministered to the Father in the creation of all things, for through him all
things were made.” (The Fundamental
Doctrines 1:0:4 [A.D. 225])
the Father, founder and creator of all things, who
alone knows no beginning, who is invisible, immeasurable, immortal, and
eternal, is one God. Neither his greatness nor his majesty nor his power can
possibly be--I should not say exceeded, for they cannot even be equaled. From
him… the Word was born, his Son.… And the latter, since he was born of
the Father, is always in the Father. And I indeed say always… He that exists
before all time must be said to have been in the Father always, for he that
exists before all time cannot be spoken of in relation to time.… Assuredly, he
Son] is God,
proceeding from God, causing, as Son, a second person after the Father, but not
taking away from the Father the fact that God is one.” (Treatise
on the Trinity 31 [A.D. 235])
Epiphanius of Salamis wrote,
believe in one God, the Father almighty, maker of all things, both visible
and invisible; and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, begotten of God the Father,
only-begotten, that is, of the substance of the Father; God of God, light of
light, true God of true God; begotten, not made;…” (The
Man Well-Anchored 120 [A.D. 374])
St. Patrick wrote,
is no other God, nor has there been heretofore, nor will there be hereafter,
except God the Father unbegotten, without beginning, from whom is
all beginning, upholding all things, as we say, and his Son Jesus Christ,…”
(Confession of St. Patrick 4 [A.D.
The testimony of the early church writers makes it clear that the concept of the Trinity was foreign to Christianity until it was adopted at the Council of Nicaea. Since that time the doctrine has undergone some alterations until it stands today as the central doctrine of the Catholic faith. Protestants claim to be free from Catholic tradition, yet most Protestant churches cling to the doctrine of the Trinity, along with many other Catholic teachings, although they have no plain biblical evidence to support it.
Many people would like you to believe that the Trinity doctrine has always been a part of Christian teaching. However, it is clear that this teaching was adopted by the Catholic Church long after the death of Christ and His apostles. It is also clear that the early Christians did not hold to this doctrine.
From the beginning of time to Christ’s day and beyond, God’s people have believed that Christ was brought forth (born) before all time and that God, His Father, gave Him up for us. “For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten [born] Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.” (John 3:16) This was the belief of the Apostles, this is the belief that God’s people carried up to the fourth century, this is the belief that God’s people preserved in the wilderness throughout the Dark Ages, and this is the belief that God’s true church will cling to at Christ’s return.
fundamental errors, we might class with this counterfeit sabbath other errors
which Protestants have brought away from the Catholic church, such as sprinkling
for baptism, the trinity, the
consciousness of the dead and eternal life in misery. The mass who have held these fundamental errors, have doubtless
done it ignorantly; but can it be supposed that the church of Christ will carry
along with her these errors till the judgment scenes burst upon the world? We
think not.” (James White, Review and
Herald, Volume 6 Number 5, page 36, September 12, 1854)
Let us forsake the fundamental error of the Trinity, which can be traced no further back than the fourth century unless you look to the pagan religions. I pray that you will stand with the few, with the faithful, who reject this unscriptural doctrine; not because I wish to stand at variance with the Catholic Church on this doctrine, but because this doctrine has negative results upon the atonement and many other aspects of our Christian faith. We will be going into this point in more detail in our next issue. [Lynnford Beachy ©2000. E-mail: ]
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